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Inhuman -Crime 

Department of School Education 

A publication under 

Government of Tamilnadu 

Distribution of Free Textbook Programme 


Government of Tamil Nadu 
First Edition - 2010 (AT. 2041) 
Reprint- 201 1(A.T.2042) 

(This Book is pubtishea unaer EquitaDie system of Education - common text book for all) 


V. Sabash Kumar, B.T. Asst. Doveton Corrie Boys' A.I. Hr. Sec. School, Vepery, Chennai-7. 
Grizelda Sailor, B.T. Asst. C.S.I. Jessie Moses Mat. Hr. Sec. School, Anna Nagar, Chennai-40. 
A. Amudha, BT. Asst. Rosary Mat. Hr. Sec. School, Santhome, Chennai - 4. 
Sharon IVIary Williams, B.T. Asst. St. Joseph A.I. High School, Perambur, Chennai - 11. 
P. Stella Selvam, B.T. Asst. Christ Church A.I. Hr. Sec. School, Mount Road, Chennai - 2. 
S. Parasuraman, P.G. Asst. P.C.K.G. Govt. Hr. Sec. School, Kodambakkam, Chennai - 24. 

Tlianks : Survey of India, UNICEF, NCERT (New Delhi), Director-Birla Planetarium-Chennai 
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Illustration : Layout : 

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Textbook Writing 

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Textbook Printing 

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Page No. 


Family and Society 
Community and Scliool 
Rural and Urban Areas 




Local Self-Government 



Democracy, Human Resource and 
Women Empowerment 




The Earth and the Solar System 
Rotation and Revolution of the Earth 



The Earth we live In 



Maps and Globe 




Economics- an Introduction 




Pre- Historic Period 



Indus Valley Civilization 
Ancient Tamil Nadu 



The Vedic Period 



Jainism and Buddhism 



Rise of Kingdoms 



Kushana Empire 







We live in houses. Who are the 
members living in our home? 

We live with our mother, father, 
brothers and sisters. The number of 
members in each house differs from 
family to family. Some families consist 
of father, mother and a child, while 
other families consist of father, mother 
and two or three children. 

Every house does not have the 
same number of members in the family. 
Some families consist of grandparents 
while other families consist of either 
grandfather or grandmother. It differs 
from family to family. While other 
families consist of father and son or 
mother and daughter. Some families 
consist of either sisters or brothers or 
children without parents. 


Each and every person mutually 
depends on each other, according to 
their needs in a society. One group 
depends on another group and one 
community with another community. 
When various communities depend on 
each other and live together it is called 
a Society. 

Families engaged in agriculture 
and weaving join as one, living and 
working together. People belonging to 
occupations like these live together. 

Our relatives, neighbours, 
classmates and playmates co-exist as 
one in a society. 

Our society enlarges from 
street, ward, town, taluk, district, state 
and country. The workers, 
manufacturers and employees 
throughout the country form part of the 

In our house, our parents 
prepare our food and look after our 
needs. In several ways we socialize 
with our neighbours. 

We help each other and 
because of this love and friendship 

Brothers and sisters from our 
neighbour's house visit, talk and play 

with us. We also visit their house, talk 
and play with them. Our parents also do 
the same. They mingle with the 

A group of people who share 
emotions like joys and sorrows with 
each other is called a society. Feelings 
like joy, sorrow and prestige are the 
most important in the society. 


Acommunity consists of a group 
of people who live together for the 
common well being and purpose. They 
frame their rights and duties. In one 
society many communities may co- 
exist. Unity, duty, right, participation, 
security and development are the very 
soul of the community. 

Society and community are 
interdependent and are interlinked. 

We need to learn to live together 
and share in the work. We need to 
understand the feelings of others. We 
need to voice our opinion for the rights 
of people. People should come 
forward to participate and work 
together joyfully. Just as we thrive to 

fulfill our needs, we should also 
participate and work for the public 
welfare. Family is the foundation for a 
joyful life. Society paves way for a 
peaceful life and the community helps 
to give security, rights, duties and 

Ellarum or kulam ellarum or inam 
Ellarum Indhiya makkal! 

Ellarum or nirai ellarum or vilai 

Ellarum in nattu mannar! - nam 

Ellarum in nattu mannar- am 

Ellarum in nattu mannar! 

- Subramania Bharathiyar. 

Living in one house and sharing meals 

cooked under the same roof is called 


Analyse the following and differentiate- Production, work and 
service help to promote ones well being. (Educational institutions, 
books, equipments, travel, shirt, sugar,dhal, computer, jewellery, 
provisions, medicines, chairs, tea, coffee, thread, fruits, vegetables, 
milk, meat and police) 






I. Choose the correct answer: 

1 . Which information is correct forthe development of the society? 

a) Society — ► family — ► individual 

b) Individual — ► family — ► community 

c) Family — ► society — ► individual 
2. The occupation which unites the society. 

a) agriculture 

b) carpentry 

c) business 




II. Fill in the blanks: 
1. People _ 

on each other. 

2. Living in one house and sharing meals cooked under the same roof is 
called . 

3. We need to each others feelings. 

Match the following: 

1 . The number of members 

2. We need to raise our voice 

3. Families engaged inweaving 

4. Society helps 

5. We depend on 

join as one and work together 
to lead a peaceful life 
each other 

differ from family to family 
forthe rights of people 

IV. Answerthe following: 

1 . What is meant by 'living together'? 

2. What is meant by the term 'community'? 

3. What is meant by the term 'society'? 


The society works hard to 
achieve its objectives everyday. The 
society tries to fulfil the aspirations 
and aims of the individuals by 
satisfying the needs of the people. 
Such as economic progress, 
improving the opportunities and 
facilities, provision of healthy life, 
security, hygienic and nutritious food, 
drinking water and fairdistribution. 

Education is the basic 
investment which paves way for the 
allround development of the society. 
Therefore the society aspires to 
achieve its aim by guaranteeing 
basic education for all children in the 

To achieve this the 
government is implementing free and 
com pulsory education for all. 

The progress and the bright 
future of the society totally depends on 
the basic education facilitated to young 

The school is one of the social 
institutions. It paves the way for 
development of education in the 
society. Children are the future citizens. 
The school imparts discipline, 
responsibility and self control to the 
youth. All the activities of the school 
thrive for the fulfilment of the 
expectation of the society. 


Fill in the blanks from the options given below: 

[owner, society teacher, faith, apply , participates, interlinked, land, 

donations, requirements] 

1 . The society was the first to 

for schools. 

to establish schools. 

in the society. 

4. The society sends its children to schools because they have in the 

2. The society provides the necessary 

3. Schools are established to fulfill the necessary_ 


5. The society is the 

6. The society gives 

7. The society actively 

of the school. 

to schools. 

in all the school functions. 

8. Schools thrive well because they are ^with the society. 

9. It is the responsibility ofthe to link the society and the school. 

1 0. If the school develops the also develops. 

The school is the stepping stone 
for the progress of the society. 
Therefore the society provides all the 
necessities to the school immediately. 
The society is the first beneficiary ofthe 
school service. The society is waiting to 
provide the school with the necessary 
requirements inorder to secure the 
bright future of its children. 

The parents with the help of the 
school instills in the students human 
values like discipline, self-control, 
equality, co-operation, community 
living, helping tendency and unity. 
Teachers are in par with God in the 

The family, community and 
society should help the student to 
strictly adhere the moral values 
imparted by the school. Teachers and 
parents should help to create an 
environment conducive for children. 
The good values acquired by the 
students in school should be followed 
and developed further. School should 
serve as a miniature society. 

The quality of primary education 
is the joint venture of parents and 

teachers. The students will ultimately 
be affected if either of them fail to do 
their duty. 

At school, the students should 
learn discipline and follow it 
accordingly. The students should 
follow the rules and regulations of the 
school such as being punctual , having 
regular attendance, self discipline, 
being attentive in class and showing 
interest in studies, being friendly with 
the students, not wasting drinking 
water, being on time and maintaining 
silence during prayer assembly. 

When the students involve 
themselves in the activities of the 
society, it is called student-community, 
adolescent community or youth 
community. Students should learn the 
code of conduct to be adopted in the 
society. There should be no variation 
between what they learn and what they 
practice. Students in their growing 
stage should learn good manners, 
citizenship and leadership. The school 
should inculcate leadership qualities 
among students. 

Match the following 

Student- Community 

1. Students need 

2. Lessons taught in school 

3. Bathe daily 

4. In school and outside 

5. Teachers' instructions 

6. Do not waste water 

7. School cleanliness 

8. Among students 

9. Parents and elders 

1 0. Outside the school 

11. Midday meals 

12. Behave well 


wear clean uniforms 

practice clean habits 

should be followed by students 

should be maintained 

do notfight but be friendly 

should be respected 

be safe and united 

will be praised 

revised by the students everyday 

be punctual in school 

use when required 

wash hands and do not waste food 

Mangoes that we get from a 
branch of the same tree will not have 
the same size, weight and appearance 
even though it has the same fragrance, 
taste, colour and quality. Similarly even 
though two people look alike having the 
same colour and physical appearance 
they have different feelings and views 

Differences are there even 
among twins. Therefore these 
differences are quite natural. 

These differences should not be 
considered in the society. Though 
there are differences in caste, colour, 
language and religion we are Indians. 
This has been illustrated in the 
following poem by Subramaniya 

Vellai nirathoru pCinai-engal 
Veetil valaruthu kander! 
Pillaigal petrathap punai -avai 
Peruk korunira magum! 

Sambal niramoru kutti - karunj 
Sandhu niramoru kutti! 
Pambin niramoru kutti-vellaip 
Palin niramoru kutti! 

Yavum orethara mandro? 
Intha Niramsri dhendrum - ihdu 
Eatramen runcholla lamo? 

- Subramania Bharathiyar 

In the world, there are no two 
people who are all alike. All are unique. 
There are no two articles which are 
same and equal. Even though there 
are differences between various 
breeds of cows all of them are termed 
as cattle. Difference is a natural 
phenomena. It is human nature to find 
unity among these. 

Differences are essential. To 
differ is not a sin. Those who differ in 
opinion are not enemies. They are our 
friends even when they have different 
views. Today we may deny certain 
things and tomorrow we may accept 
them. This is quite human. Differences 
add enchantment and spice to our 

Various shapes and curves go 
together to complete a picture. Various 
colours give beauty to the portrait. 
When these colours and shapes come 
together they give beauty to the 
scenery. The variety among people 

help to unite the society. It is our 
greatness to find meaning among 
these differences. We need to 
understand the character in different 
people in order to live together. 

We cannot avoid these 
differences in the society. This is the 
law of nature. Teachers should help 
students to recognize the reason for 
these differences and help them to live 
a harmonious life. 

Differences should be 
understood with their background to 
appreciate their naturality. 

'There are many fruit flakes in a 
jackfmit yet it is considered as a single 
fruit. Likewise many flowers are used to 
make a garland." 

Though there are various 
differences like caste, creed, 
language, religion and surroundings in 
our country yet we are Indians. We 
should create an awareness among the 
students that though there are 
differences yet we belong to one 
country. There are also strengthening 
forces which unite us such as the 
National flag, the National emblem, our 
Constitution and culture. 

The values imparted to the 
students by the teachers should be 
carefully carried out with the help of the 
parents, community and society. The 
effect of the school should be reflected 
in the family. 

The family life is continued in society. Student should get themselves 
school. Students should be trained to accustomed for a successful sociallife. 
follow the goals and aspiration of the 


L Fill in the blanks: 

1 . School is a institution. 

2. paves way for the development of the society. 

3. The unites the society and the school. 

4. Differences are . 

5. are given equal importance to God. 

III. Match the following: 

1 . Society - helps the society to grow 

2. Do not waste drinking water - student- society 

3. Students who join together - should praise the students 

4. Parents and elders - good quality of the students 
5. School - owner of the school 

IV. Answer the following: 

1 . By whom are schools established? 

2. What does the development of the society depend on? 

3. Why is it necessary to have differences? 

4. What are the moral values to be instilled in the students? 

5. List the principles, the student should follow in school. 

6. List the aims of the society. 

V. Answerthe following in details: 

1 . Difference is the 'law of nature'. -Explain. 

2. The students of today are the future citizens of tomorrow'. - Explain. 



These days people prefer to 
migrate from villages to towns and 
cities. Those who migrate from the 
villages find it difficult to live in cities. 

Cities with large population are 
called Corporations. Some of them are 
Chennai, Madurai, Coimbatore, Trichy, 
Salem and Tirunelveli. Corporations 
have broad four way roads, flyovers, 
skyscrapers, parks, private and public 
offices, industries, educational and 
technological institutions. Residential 
apartments are increasing in the 
suburban areas. 

Villages are located more or less 
twenty five kms. away from the cities. 
These are called as suburban areas. 
The main occupation of the people living 
in these areas are agriculture, weaving, 
handicrafts, brick klin and rice mills. 
They even engage themselves in 
fishing. These days we find many 
differences between cities and 
suburban areas. 

The basic requirements like 
food, clothing, shelter, education, 
medical facilities, transport facilities, 
employment opportunities and social 
security should be provided. 

There are more employment 
opportunities available in cities. People 
working in Government offices and 
technical industries receive monthly 
income. Permanent employees, people 

who work in the cine field, television 
and journalist also receive regular 
income. These people are able to 
satisfy their basic requirements easily. 

But at the same time people 
living in villages are entirely different. 
l\/lost of the people are agriculturists or 

As agriculture is well developed, 
it provides job opportunities to 
agricultural labourers. In recent years 
the pastural lands have been reduced 
in size and cattle rearing has also 
decreased. Most of the agricultural 
lands have been converted into 
residential flats. 

This was a death blow to agriculture. 
Therefore agricultural labourers started 
migrating to towns and cities. People 
who have migrated from villages and 
towns are employed in the laying of 
roads, construction of flyovers and 
multi-storeyed buildings. 

Difference between the life in villages and cities: 

Village life 

City life 

1 . Fresh air and ventilated residential 

Polluted environment and crowded 


residential areas 

2. Dependent on each other 

Independent life 

3. Hereditary occupations 

Changes according to the time 

4 Simple and natural food 

Fast food and expensive food 


5. Less transport facilities 

Different modes of transport 

6. Less medical facilities 

Expensive modern medical 


7. Availability of Primary, Middle and 

Higher educational facilities are 

High School Education. Less 

available in all fields 

opportunities for higher education 


Do you agree with the above mentioned differences? 
Form small groups and discuss. Prepare a list regarding the 
life in villages and cities. 

The various government welfare schemes help to reduce the 
gap between villages and cities. 

• To increase employment opportunities the government has 
introduced "Velai UruthiyalippuThittam". 

Transport facilities in villages 

Fair price shops supply goods of good quality to the 
consumer at reasonable price. By adopting these methods, 
the government has made efforts to control 
the migration of people from villages to cities. 

The Government has introduced the "Sarva Shiksha 
Abhiyan (SSA)". In order to help these students to continue 
their Secondary Education, the Government has implemented 
the "Rashtriya Madyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA)'. It imparts 
education to the children of the economically backward 
industrial labourers. As a result of these programmes the 
numberof dropouts from schools have been reduced. 



Evaluation : 

L Fill in the blanks: 

1 . The main occupation of the people in the village is 

2. Transport facilities are available in . 

3. Agricultural workers migrate from villages to 

II. Answer the following: 

1 . What are the basic requirements of man? 

2. Give reasons for the migration of agricultural workers to cities. 

3. How can corporations be identified? 

4. List the infrastructure facilities found in cities. 

5. Enumerate five differences between village life and city life. 

lit. Think and answer: 

1 . List out the reasons for the differences between villages and cities. 

2. Give suggestions to remove the differences found in villages and cities. 



In the previous lesson we have 
learnt about the steps taken by the 
Government to minimize the 
differences found in villages and towns. 
In this lesson we will learn 'What is 
meant by Government?' 

In olden days, our country was 
ruled by kings and chieftains. Tamil 
Nadu was ruled by the Cheras, Cholas 
and Pandyas. Kalabhras, Pallavas, 
Nayaks, Marathas and others 
conquered and ruled various parts of 
Tamil Nadu. 

The Europeans like the English, 
Portuguese, French and Dutch came 
to India for trade, in India there were 
frequentwars among the rulers. Taking 
advantage of this situation the English 
subdued the Indians and ruled over the 
country for more than two hundred 
years. During this period the Zamindari 
system emerged. Most of the land was 
under the control of theZamindars. 

The Indians were eager to free 
themselves from the British rule. They 
did not want the British to rule over 
them. They wanted the Indians to rule 
the country. At the same time they 
decided to remove the inequality in the 
society. The Indians joined together 
and revolted against the British rule. As 
a result of this India got independence 
on 15* August 1947. 

In independent India there was a 
discussion regarding the type of 
government to be formed. They were 
in favour of a democratic government. 
According to their desire, after 
independence a democratic 
government was established. 

Democracy means, 
'Government of the people, by the 
people and for the people'. People who 
have attained eighteen years of age are 
eligible to cast their vote and elect their 
representatives. This is called 
democracy. This type of administrative 
set up is called a Republic. India is a 
Republic. We have framed our own 
Laws and our Constitution. 


Our Government 

Only elected representatives of 
the Parliament and the Assembly can 
make decisions, frame the laws and 
implement various plans. 

Our representatives are elected 
through elections. Those who have 
completed the stipulated years of age 
are eligible to contest in the elections. 
There is no discrimination in caste, 
creed, religion, language, gender and 
economic status to contest in the 

The Constitution assures 
Justice, Liberty, Equality and Fraternity. 
The Supreme Court is the guardian of 
our Constitution. People can approach 
the court with their grievances and get 
justice. All are equal before law. Those 
who are talented and interested can 
become lawyers or judges with proper 
educational qualifications. 

Administrative officers provide 
the daily requirements like drinking 
water, electricity, food supply and 
transport. The administrative officers 
are in the various stages. They are 
Village Administrative Officer, Revenue 
Inspector, Thasildar, Revenue 
Divisional Officer and District Revenue 

The District Collector receives 
orders from the State Government and 
implements them through these 

The Collector along with the 
subordinate officers help to implement 
the development programmes. 

If we find any disparities in the 
basic services, we have to approach 
the concerned officers and mention our 
grievances. Every Monday is 
observed as 'Grievance day'. People 
residing in that area can approach the 
officers with their grievances. Apart 
from this once a month officers from 
the District Collector to the Village 
Administrative officers have to camp in 
remote villages. Those who do not have 
the facility to visit the District Collector's 
office can utilize this opportunity and 
approach the Collector directly and 
hand over their petitions. In the same 
camp all the grievances are solved by 
the Public Relationship Programmes. 
(MakkalThodarbuThitta Naal) 

Maintaining law and order and 
the prevention of crimes is the duty of 
the Police department. The duties of 
the Defence force is to protect our 
country's border from foreign invasion. 
In times of natural calamities they help 
the Civil Administrators. 

The head of the Indian 
Government is the Prime Minister. 
Each state is ruled by the Ministers 
under the leadership of the Chief 
Minister. Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha and 
State Assembly representatives are 
elected according to the Indian 


When we play cricket or football we frame rules and regulations. In the sanne 
way we have rules and regulations for our Government. This is called as Our 


There are more 
employment opportunities 
available in cities. People 
working in Government 
offices and technical 
industries receive monthly 

1 . Visit the camp organized by the Collector for 
'Public Relationship Programme' and 
'Grievance day'. Form small groups with the 
assistance of the teacher. Observe how the 
officers find solution to the problems and 
discuss in class. 

2. Visit a police station, court near your village / 
city with your teacher. Observe how they 
function. Discuss with these officials and 
gather information. Explain and discuss in 


Fill in the blanks: 

1. The type of Government followed in our country is 

2. Law and order is maintained by 

3. Officer from the Village Administrative Officer to the 
participate in camps in remote villages once a month. 

II. Answer the following : 

1 . Who ruled our country during the ancient period? 

2. Where and when do they observe 'Grievance day', 

3. Who are representatives? How are they elected?. 

How do they find 




Our Country, India comprises of 
a large landmass. It is densely 
populated. The people live in villages, 
towns and cities. India is a vast country 
with a large population therefore the 
Central and the State Government 
alone cannot provide the necessary 
requirements and solve the problems. 

The Local Self-Government is 
formed in India to serve every nook and 
corner of the country. In this lesson we 
will learn about Local Self- 


What is the name of your village? 
How did your village get its name? 
What is its meaning and reason for it? 
Find out from your grandparents and 
elders of the village. 

The speciality of Tamil Nadu is 
the facinating and meaningful names of 
villages. Some of the names of places 
are mentioned in History. 






'Nallan pillai pettral', 

■Paal varthu vendran' 



'Pan pozhir -These are some of 
the names of the villages in Tamil Nadu. 
Find out how these places got their 
names with the help of your teacher. 
Form small groups and collect 

You would have seen a 
Panchayat Union Office in your village. 
The names of the Panchayat 
President, Vice President and the Ward 
members are written on the same 

In the same way the Town 
Panchayat and the District Panchayat 
also have members. 

This system is called as 'Local 
Administration'. 'Lord Ripon' introduced 
Local Self-Government in India. Local 
Self-Government was in existence 
even before independence. 

The functions of the Village 

• Laying village roads 

• Digging wells 

• Laying drainage system 

• Maintaining street lights 

• Construction of small bridges 

• Sanctioning the construction 
of houses 

• Maintaining village libraries 

• Construction of group houses 

• Maintaining and establishing 
recreation centres and 


To whom would you complain to solve 
the following problems : 

Street lights that are not in 
working condition, damaged roads, 
non availability of drinking water, block 
in the drainage. 

To solve the above mentioned 
problems we need funds. Who will 
provide these funds? We the people 
give it in the form of house tax, 
professional tax, property tax etc. and 
with that tax the above mentioned 
works are done. 

members. The village development 
programmes and annual budget plans 
can be implemented only after the 
beneficiaries of the programmes get 
approval from the Village Council. 


Revenue : 

• House tax, professional tax, tax 
from shops. 

• Fee for drinking water connection 
and water tax. 

• A share of the land revenue. 

• One part of the share from the land 
registration fee, these funds are 
utilized for the development of 

Since this is not sufficient the 
Central and State Governments 
provide financial assistance in the form 
of funds, subsidiaries and grants 
through the District Rural Development 

Village Council: 

There is a Village Council in 
every village. Those who reside within 
the limits of the Panchayat are its 

Have you seen the Village 
Council in progress? Witness with your 
parents. Collect information regarding 
the functioning of the Village Council. 
The Panchayat Union consists of 
several village panchayats. 

Through elections they elect the 
panchayat union members in the ratio 
of 1 :5,000. Among them one will be 
selected as the Panchayat Union 

For programmes like the 
complete health care scheme 

Central and State Governments 
provide funds and subsidiaries to the 

Find out from one of the members 
working in the panchayat about 'tax'. 



The Village Council meets four times a 

January 26"^ 

August 15"^ 
October 2"' 

Republic day 
Labour day 
Independence day 
Mahatma Gandhi's 

These four days are public 
holidays. It is convenient to conduct the 
Village Council on these days. The 
Village Councils can be conducted on 
other days apart from these specified 
days. Special councils are conducted 
to get permission in times of emergency 
or special programmes. 

Functions of the Panchayat Union: 

The Panchayat Unions are 
supervised by the District Rural 
Development Agencies which are 
under the control of the district 
administration. All the plans are 
implemented with the help of the 
District Collector, Programme Officer 
and the Block Development Officers. 

District Panchayat: 

Each district is provided with a 
District Panchayat. The members of the 
District Panchayat are elected by the 
people through elections in the ratio of 
1:50,000. These members elect one 
member among them as the District 
Panchayat President. They remain in 
office for five years. 

Maintenance of the Panchayat Functions ofthe District Panchayat: 

Union roads 

• Providing drinking water 

• Establishment of primary health 

• Maintenance of primary school 

• Monitoring maternity homes 

• Establishing village markets 

• Distributing agricultural implements 
and fertilizers 

• Developing and extending social 

• Establishing veterinary 


With the help of your teacher 
interview the Chairman of the 
Panchayat Union. Note down their 
duties and future plans. Discuss with 
your teachers in class. 

The important functions of the 
District Panchayat involve giving 
suggestions to the Government 
regarding the development work and 
the improvement of roads and transport 
carried out by the Village Panchayats 
and the Panchayat Unions within the 
district. It also supervises the various 
development work carried out in the 


Form small groups and collect the 
names of the Panchayat Unions and 
Municipalities. List them. 


Let us learn: 


District Planning Committee: 

Tlie District Pancliayat President 
also acts as the President of the District 
Planning Committee. The important 
functions of the committee is to draft a 
Development Plan for the whole 
district. The Draft plan is submitted to 
the State Planning Commission. The 
elected representatives of the local 
bodies elect the members of the District 
Planning Committee. The members of 
the Legislative Assembly and also the 
members of the Parliament of India 
belonging to each district are included 
as members of this committee. 

Town Panchayat: 

An area which has a population 
of more than one lakh, is termed as a 
Municipality. The people directly elect 
their Chairperson and the Ward 
representatives through elections. 
They hold office for a period of five 
years. The administrative officer is the 
Municipal Commissioner. 


A city which has a large 
population, big infrastructure and 
important government offices is called 
as a Corporation. The chairperson of 
the Corporation is called the 'Mayor'. 
The Mayor holds office for a period of 
five years. The Administrative officer of 
the Corporation is the Commissioner. 

Villages which have a 
population of more than 10,000 are 
upgraded into Town Panchayats. 
Through elections they directly elect 
the President and representatives. 
The Executive Officer supervises the 
administration of the Town Panchayats. 



Evaluation : 

I. Choose the correct answer: 

1 . Local self government was introduced by — 

a. LordRipon 
c. Indira Gandhi 

2. Panchayat Union Chairperson is elected by 

a. Ward members 

b. People 

c. Union President 

II. Fill in the blanks: 

1 . The term of office for the Mayor is 

2. Every district has a panchayat. 

Answer the following: 

1 . Why is Local self-government necessary? 

2. What are the duties of the Village Council? How many times in a year and 
when does the Village Council meet? 

3. List out the four important functions of the Village Council. 

4. How does the Village Council get Its revenue? 

5. How Is the Panchayat Union formed? 



Representatives are elected by 
the citizens of our Country. This is 
called Democracy. The Government 
governed by the people is called as 
Democratic Republic. 

Citizens enjoy equal rights in a 
Republic. Those who complete the 
age of eighteen are eligible to vote. 

The citizens in our country enjoy 
equal opportunities. Women who 
constitute half of the Indian population 
have been denied these opportunities 
and have been left behind. This can 
weaken the democratic set up of our 
country. If equal opportunities are 
given to women, their participation will 
surely help to strengthen the 

Disparities in the society 
emerge through various means. 
These disparities that have emerged 
are by birth, high class and low class, 
untouchability, rich and poor, employer 
and employee, master and servant, 
educated and uneducated, landlord 
and peasant. 

The people have missed out 
many opportunities to lead a better life, 
due to the prevailing disparities in the 
society. By providing them with the 
opportunities which they had missed, 
they have been enabled to lead a 
complete life. Thus these disparities 
can be eradicated and equality can be 

established in the society. Thereby 
'social justice' prevails. 

By nature we find a division in 
gender - male and female. For many 
years people have blindly believed that 
men are superior and women are 
inferior. This blind belief is a hindrance 
forthe development of human resource 
in the society. 

Because of the characteristic 
features of women we cannot say that 
women are inferior in knowledge to 
men. In general men are physically 
strong and women are mentally strong. 
Physical and mental strength differs 
from person to person. This difference 
is not due to gender. It is due to the 
hereditary practices. Men get the 
opportunity to be educated, receive 
salary for their work and right to 
property. Due to of this misconception 
that prevailed in the society, men have 
been given the opportunity to rule and 
obtain high government posts. 

Women were made to stay at 
home because of child birth, take care 
of the children as well as the family. 
From the earlier days the 
misconception was that men were 
suitable to run errands and do physical 

Women always depend on male 
companions like father, husband, 
brother and son to lead life. 

21 1 


Many concepts have been evolved 
and have been handed down from 
generation to generation. The same 
concept prevails in the minds of the 
students in the society. 

We know the ability and capability of 
women through their work from early 

• Managing the house and 

• Rearing and maintaining cattle, 

• Weaving mats, basket making 
and making thatched roofs out 
ofdry coconut leaves 

• Medical or health workers, 
sanitary workers, prevention of 
diseases, home remedies 

police. Mostly women are doctors, 
engineers, lecturers, advocates, 
judges, press reporters and work in the 
field of cinema. Some are government 
employees, car drivers, bus drivers, 
lorry drivers, pilots and travel by space 
rockets. They also do research work. 
Some are bank managers, collectors 
and police commissioners. 

• Maternity, child care, helping 
children to grow 

• House gardening, vegetables, 
fruits, flowers, roots, production 
and sale of milk 

• Economic budget, maintaining 
relationships with relatives 

• Agricultural labour, gathering 
and storing grains 

Through the ages they have 
been engaged in intellectual, patient, 
technological excellence and working 
long hours. Because of the 
educational development women have 
engaged themselves as teachers, 
nurses, typists, stenographers and 

In these ways women engage 
themselves in various occupations. Is 
it right to say that only these 
occupations can be done by women? 
Many women become modern women 
as envisioned by the great poet 
Subramania Bharathiyar. 

"Madharthammai izhivu cheiyum 
Madamai iakko luthuvom; 
Vaia vazhvu thanni lentha 
Vaigaie lumna makkulae 
Thatha rendranilaimaimari 
Sarini garsa mana maga 
Vazhva mintha nattilae!" 


These are the famous lines sung by the 
famous national poet Subramania 
Bharathiyar. These lines depict that in 
all fields women are not in anyway 
inferior to men. 

A noble woman- 
Dr. Muthulakshmi 

A multifaceted personality, 
Dr.Muthulakshmi was one of the 
outstanding Indian women of her time. 

She was born on 30"" July 1886 
in the princely state of Pudukottai. She 
was an outstanding student. A crop 
which is about to yield bumper harvest 
can be identified at the seedling stage. 
Likewise her versatile talents were 
visible even when she was a child. 

According to her community she was 
not allowed to attend school. So she 
was tutored at home and passed her 

examination from home. She was the 
first woman to study in the men's 
college in Pudukkottai. She had a 
multifaceted personality. By nature she 
was just and compassionate. She was 
interested in human welfare and was a 
woman of exemplary character. 

She was the first Indian woman 
to obtain a medical degree from 
Madras Medical College in 1912. She 
was nominated to the Madras 
legislative as a member of the 
Legislative Council and became the 
first woman member during the British 
rule. She was elected as the Deputy 
Chairperson of the Legislative Council. 
She fought for the rights of women. 
Like men, women should also be given 
the right to property and to vote. 

She was the first woman 
President of the All India Women's 
Association and the first woman to be 
elected as Alder-man of the Madras 
(now Chennai) Corporation. She 
respected the Indian freedom fighters. 
Therefore she was familiar with the 
poet Subramania Bharathiyar. 

She was concerned with the 
plight of women. As they were 
suppressed for many generations. 

She wanted to wipe the tears of 
the women. She fought for the 
betterment of women right to women's 
education, equal rights for women, 
emancipation of women and protection 
of the girl child. 

Dr. Muthulakshmi 



She took an interest in cancer 
studies and pursued it at the Royal 
Cancer Hospital in London for the 
benefit of the women cancer patients. 
She was instrumental in starting the 
Cancer Institute in Adyar, Chennai. The 
Institute stands as a testimony of her 
fame and name. 

With the help of the government 
aid for the orphan children ,widows and 
destitute women, she established a 
home atTambaram. 

The social evil of child marriage 
prevailed throughout the country. She 
rose in revolt against child marriage 
and with the help of the government a 
Bill was passed. 

In earlier days it was a custom to 
dedicate girls to the deity to be of 
service in the temple under the 
'Devadasi' system. Thousands of 
women's lives were destroyed 
throughout the country because of this. 

In those days it was believed 
that to become a devadasi, is a way of 
offering oneself to the service of God. 
But this was a social sin inflicted on 
womenfolk. Dr. Muthulakshmi fought 
against this social evil and took 
measures to eradicate this by suitable 
enactments. Many conservative 
rationalists and religious fanatics 
opposed the amendment of the bill. 

Dr. Muthulakshmi with the help 
and guidance of E.V.R. Periyar, leader 
of the Self- Respect movement strived 
to eradicate the devadasi system. A bill 
was passed in the Legislature. 

In those days E.V.R. Periyar, 
Tamil Thendral, Thiru.Vi.Ka and 
Moovalur Ramamirtham Ammaiyar 
supported the bill. They explained 
about its importance and got the 
support of the public. This shows the 
social life of the people. 

Dr. Muthulakshmi has worked 
for various social causes. She started 
orphanages. She opened free 
dispensaries for the slum dwellers. 
She got help from the institutions and 
helped the downtrodden. In 1930 she 
founded the Awai Home at Adyar for 
the benefitof destitute women. 

She introduced a free education 
scheme for girls up to class eight. 

Dr. Muthulaksmi was a 
pioneering social reformer. She was 
awarded the Padma Bhushan in 1956 
for her meritorious service. She 
dedicated her life for the upliftment of 

I n order to highlight 
Dr.Muthulakshmi's name and fame, 

has implemented a 
welfare scheme namely 
Dr.Muthulakshmi Maternity Stipendary 
Scheme. An amount of one thousand 
rupees per month for three prenatal 
care months and three postnatal care 
months. Thus a whole sum of six 
thousand rupees for all the mothers in 
Tamil Nadu to get a nutritious diet. 


Evaluation : 

I. Choose the correct answer 

1 . In a Republic, citizens 

a. haveequalinvestments 

b. own equal property 

c. have equal rights 

2. The first Indian woman doctor 

a. MuthulakshmiAmmaiyar 

b. Vijayalakshmi Pandit 

c. KalpanaChawla 

3. Occupations in which women are not involved 

a. cricket 

b. pilot 

c. none of the above 


a. home for the destitutes and widows 

b. orphanageforgirls 

c. home for the unemployed women. 

II. Fill in the blanks: 

1 creates an equal society. 

2.Ageatwhich men and women can vote is 

3."Madharthammaiizhivu seyyum 

Madamai eykko luthuvom" these lines were sung by 



Match the following: 

1 . To eradicate the inequality in tine society 

2. IVIen alone are suitable for all positions 

3. Women depend on male companions 

4. To stop the custom of child marriage 

5. Cancer Institute at Adyar 

beliefs passed through the 


it proclaims the fame 


wrong attitude. 

social justice. 

prohibition act. 

IV. Answer the following: 

1 . What is the hindrance for human resource development ? 

2. Mention eight services where women require mental and physical 

3. Mention the scheme introduced in Tamil Nadu for the welfare of the 
mother and child. 

4. Mention the first achievement of Dr. Muthulakshmi in India. 

5. Name the award awarded by the Central Government to 
Dr. Muthulakshmi. 

6. How does the society deny women, their rights? 




1 . The Earth and the Solar System 

The bright and beautiful evening gradually faded away. The setting 
Sun soon sank into the western horizon and went out of sight. Slowly darkness 
began to envelope the sky, as night was setting in stars began to appear like little 
lamps in the sky. Soon in the total darkness of night, millions of stars appeared 
twinkling like diamond studded in the canopy of deep blue. What a glorious sight! 

A keen observation of the enchanting night 
sky would reveal amazing truths. 

It appears that the Sun rises in the 
east and sets in the west. When the Sun 
rises, the stars become invisible. But when 
the Sun sets in the west stars shine 

Among thousands of twinkling stars 
in the night sky, it is the moon that instantly 
captures our attention. We come to know 
a lot of amazing information if we observe 
the moon. 

First, the shape of the moon keeps 
changing everyday. The shape of the 
moon waxes from the new moon to the full 
moon and wanes from the full moon to the 
new moon. 

We can calculate the duration 
between one new moon to the next new 
moon or one full moon to the next full moon 
which is a month, thus appearing in many 

The moon appears with different 
heavenly bodies everyday. 

Besides the stars, planets are also 
seen in the night sky. Planets also appear 
like light stars. Then how can we 
differentiate the planets from the star? 

" 27 


Take a paper and prick small 
and big holes on it with a needle. Fix 
a torch in the centre of the paper with 
its front portion touching the paper. 

Switch off all lights and make 
the room dark. Now flash the torch 
light on the wall. You will see 
numerous dots of light on the wall. 
We assume that they are the stars 
that shine in the sky. 

Switch on all the lights in the 
room. This light can be compared to 
the sun. All dots of light (stars) will 
become almost invisible. Similarly 
stars are invisible during the day 
because of the bright light emitted by 
the Sun. 





First, if you look closely, you will 
notice that the stars twinkle. The 
planets glow without any flicker. 

Secondly planets do not remain 
in the same position. If you see a 
planet with a particular star today, you 
might see the same planet with 
another star after a certain period of 

Thus the various positions of 
planets can be seen against the 
backdrop of stars. 

Without the help of the 
telescope, you will be able to see five 
planets namely Mercury, Uranus, 
Mars, Jupiter and Saturn with the 
naked eye. 

But Neptune and Uranus can 
be seen only through a telescope. 

Before sunrise or sunset you 
can see Mercury and Venus for few 
hours. These two planets appear only 
at the horizon. 

Venus rises a few hours before 
sunrise and therefore it is called as The 
morning star'. 

Mars, Jupiter and Saturn are 
visible with the naked eye during the 
night either in the east or overhead or in 
the west. 

Thus we can see only five 
planets with the naked eye. In Tamil the 
days of the week are named after these 
five planets, the moon and the Sun. 

We know that "seeing is not 
believing" is a scientific outlook. It 
appears to us that the Sun and the stars 
rises in the east and sets in the west. 

But in fact it is only the earth that 
spins on its axis everyday. It appears to 
us that all the celestial bodies including 
the Sun and the stars move from east to 
west because the earth spins from the 
west to the east. 

The moon moves from the west to the east for three consecutive days, with the stars 
as a back drop, (which can be seen in the picture below) 

te^^^v. -, 

1 nira way r 

mm ' 







Usually the upper part of the map indicates the north, the lower part 
indicates the south. The right side shows the east while the left side indicates the 
west. But in the map showing night sky, the right side indicates the west, and the 
left side indicates the east. Directions are located accurately if the map is held 
overhead in a higher position. 

8, Neptti 


4. Mars 

6. Saturn 


Solar System 

It is not only because of the rotation of the earth, 
but also due to the rotation of the moon and other 
planets, we are able to observe their movements. 

The moon revolves around the earth, similarly the 
planets revolve around the Sun. Thus it appears that all 
the planets move, with the stars as a backdrop. 

The Solar System 

We can see the sun, moon and the five planets 
mentioned before with naked eyes. 

With the help of the telescope we can observe 
other celestial bodies like Uranus, Neptune, Comets, 
Meteoroids, Asteroids, Galaxies, dwarf planets billions of 
stars and other gaseous objects. 

The Sun has eight planets. All planets revolve 
around the sun. 

The earth is also a planet. Different kinds of life 
including human beings are found on earth because the 
earth's atmosphere has oxygen. 

The eight planets have been classified into solid 
planets and gaseous planets. Mercury, Venus, Earth, 
and IWars are called as Solid planets, while Jupiter, 
Saturn Uranus and Neptune are gaseous planets. 

other than the Earth, all other planets have no oxygen 
and large amount of other gases in their respective 
atmosphere. Hence life is not found in these planets. 

All planets appear to move in an anti-clockwise 
direction if you take a bird's eye view from the north pole of 
the Sun. Even though they all revolve in the same 
direction, the duration of their revolution around the Sun 
differs from one another. 

The planets which revolve around the Sun, do not 
deviate from their respective paths. All planets revolve 
around the Sun in an elliptical path, approximately at the 
same plane. The path that the planet takes to revolve 
around the Sun is called 'Orbit'. 


The Sun is the head of the Solar family. It is at the 
centre of the Solar system. It is a large gaseous ball of 
fire. The gravity of the Sun holds the Solar system 

The Sun is the source of heat and light for the entire 
Solar family. The earth is approximately 150 million km 

The Sun is very hot but the earth receives only 
moderate heat from the Sun. The Sun is the only celestial 
body that emits light in the Solar system. 


The rings of Saturn is visible through a telescope. 
These rings consist of small stones, dust and ice particles. 
^H Though only the rings of Saturn are magnificent, Jupiter, 
Uram!^ Uranus and Neptune also have rings. 



Pluto, Charon, Ceres, Eris were newly grouped as 
'Dwarf Planets' in the year 2006. They also revolve 
around the Sun. They are very small in size. Their size is 
smaller than our moon. So they are called Dwarf planets. 


No planet has the capacity to emit light because they do not have light of 
their own. They reflect the light of the Sun. 

The time taken for the rotation and revolution of the planets around the Sun 


Duration of 

Distance from 
the Sun 

Duration of 


87.97 days 

5.79 Crore Km 

58.6 days 


224.7 days 

10.82 Crore Km 

(-)243 days 


365.4 days 

1 5 Crore Km 

23 hours 56 min 


687 days 

22.79 Crore Km 

24 hours 37 min 


11 years 9 months 

77.83 Crore Km 

9 hours 55 min 


29 years 5 months 

142.7 Crore Km 

10 hours 40 min 


84 years 

287.1 Crore Km 

(-)17 hours 39 min 


164 years 9 months 

449.7 Crore Km 

16 hours 

Venus and Uranus marked with the (-) sign rotate from east to west. 
But all other planets rotate from the west to the east. 

Source- NASA, USA 


Thousands of asteroids are found 
between Mars and Jupiter. Asteroids are 
clusters of celestial bodies which includes 
tiny stones and big rocks which can measure 
upto 300 to 400 km in diametre. 

Some of them have Indian names 
such as Vynu Pappu the astronomer, 
Sarabai the Father of Atomic energy and 
Ramanujam the Mathematician. 


The Moon is called by different names 
in Tamil. The Moon is not a planet. 








No. of Satellites that 

revolve around the planets 
















Moon does not revolve around 
the Sun directly. It revolves around the 
Earth. Hence it is called a satellite. 

The moon is the satellite of the 
Earth. With the help of telescope and 
space research, it is proved that like the 
Earth; Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and 
Neptune also have a number of 

The moon Is a sphere which 
measures a quarter of the Earth's 
diameter. It appears very large to us 
because it is very close to the Earth. It 
revolves around the earth approximately 
at a distance of 3,84,401 Km. 

It takes about 27.3 days for the 
moon to revolve around the earth and 
27.3 days for the moon to rotate on its 

Hence from the Earth we are able 
to see only one side of the moon. In the 
year 1959 the satellite Lunar 3 
photographed the other side of the 

The moon does not have an 
atmosphere like the earth. Water is not 
found in the liquid form but moisture is 

Landforms such as mountains, 
plateaus and valleys that are found on 
the earth's surface are also found on 
the moon. 

Craters are another special 
feature of the moon. This can be viewed 
through a telescope. These craters are 
formed due to the meteorites which fall 
very often on the moon's landscape. 
Few craters are formed due to volcanic 

Where does the Moon go on a new 
moon day? 

Earth's elliptical path 



Waxing Moon 


Moon ^^ 

«f * 9 

^TFull M< 

Waning Moon 

The Sun is the only illuminating 
celestial body in our solar system. 
Though the moon shines brightly 
during the night, it actually reflects the 
light of the Sun. 

Like the Earth, the moon is also 
almost a sphere, therefore the side 
that faces the Sun, shines brightly 
while theothersideisdark. 

During the revolution of the 
moon around the earth, the dark side 
of the moon that faces the earth is 
called the 'new moon'. The side of the 
moon that shines brightly on the earth 
is called 'full moon'. 

On a new moon day, the moon 
comes between the earth and the Sun 
and on a full moon day, the moon is 
opposite to the Sun. 

Why are we not able to see 
the other side of the moon? 

Ask a student to stand in one 
place. Draw a circle around him / her 
with a radius of two metres. Ask 
another student to stand on the circle. 
The student who stands at the centre 
of the circle is the Earth. Give him/ 
her a card denoting the name 

The student who stands on the 
circle is the Moon. Give her / him a 
card denoting the name "Moon". Now, 
the student who represents moon 
should revolve around the earth 
facing only the earth. 

The moon is revolving around 
the earth. But, does the moon rotate 
on its axis -Discuss. 

Note the direction of the face 
of the student who represents the 
moon. The direction of the face of the 
moon changes on all sides when it 
revolves around the Earth. This is 
called rotation. 

Hence the moon rotates on its 
axis. The duration of rotation and 
revolution of the moon around the 
Earth is the same. 





^O i 

moon, a day 
equal halves, 
the other half 
on the moon 
phase of the 
the Earth. 


the Sunlight falls on the 
is exactly divided into two 
that is one half is day and 
is night. The day and night 
changes according to the 
moon that we view from 


The sudden streaks of light seen on 
a starry night is called as Meteoroids. This 
can be seen when the remains of the rocky 
parts of the comets strike the Earth's 
atmosphere and streaks of light are 
generated. They are not stars that fall 

What happens when you rub your 
palms together? Do you feel the warmth? 

Similarly when fragments of rocks 
and comets from space strike the earth's 
atmosphere, heat is generated. So it burns 
and shrinks. This phenomena appears as a 
bright streak of light. 

1 -;3 

• » ^^ 


It is exciting to see a comet in the 
night sky. A comet is not a star. It is a rock 
made of dust and ice. The long tall is seen 
because, as the comet comes near the 
Sun, the ice melts and reflects the light of 
the Sun. 

The tail of the comet is seen in the 
opposite direction of the Sun. The tail of 
the comet appears because minute 
particles from the sun strike the gaseous 
part emitted from the comet. 

Now it is clear that the Solar family 
consists of the Sun, Its eight planets, the 
satellites like the moon that revolve 
around the planets, dwarf planets, 
thousands of asteroids, meteoroids and 


Millions of constellations of stars 
seen in the sky is called a galaxy. 
Thousands of galaxies form the universe. 
The Universe is vast and ever expanding. 
Research and experiments are still being 
carried out. 

Milky way galaxy is one among the 
many galaxies. 


The twinkling stars that are seen 
on a starry night are actually like the 
sun, but are far away. 

Many of these stars are 
hundreds and thousand times bigger 
than ourSun. 

They are seen only as a small 
spot of light because they are very, very 
far away. Scientists have found that 
planets revolve around these stars. 

Millions of stars, including the 
Sun and other celestial bodies which 
can be viewed with our eyes belongs to 

the Milky way galaxy. 

A white streak of light can be 
seen on a clear night for few days. Our 
ancestors called this as the Milky Way 
galaxy. In India it is named as " Akash 

Milky way galaxy is a dense 
cluster of stars. They appear as a tiny 
dot of light because they are far away. 
We live in the earth which is part of the 
solar system in the Milky way galaxy. 


• We live in Tamil Nadu. 

• Tamil Nadu is a state in India. 

• India is one of the many countries 
on Earth. 

• Earth is a planet in the Solar 

• Solar system is a member of the 
Milky Way galaxy. 

• Our Universe is made of many 
galaxies like the Milky Way galaxy. 

Think : Where do we live in the 


Earth is the third planet from 
the Sun. Mercury and Venus are 
very hot planets. Mars, Jupiter, 
Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are 
very cold because they are far 

Land, water, air and heat are 
available in the optimum amount 
only on earth. Therefore different 
kinds of life develop and increase 
only on earth. 

In our Solar system there is 
life only on earth. There is no life on 
other planets. Earth is called as 
'Living Planet' because life is found 
in abundance only on earth. 


Choose the correct answer : 

1. The planet thatcanbeviewedonlythrough a telescope is 

(a) Mercury (b) Uranus (c) Mars 

2. All the planets revolve around the Sun in an path 

(a) circular (b) elliptical (c) square 

3. Asteroids are found between 

(a) Earth and Mars (b) Mars and Jupiter (c) Jupiter and Saturn 



Answer the following: 

How will you differentiate stars and planets in the night sky? 

What does the term 'Solar system' mean? 

Why are we not able to see the other side of the moon from the earth? 


The period between the full moon and new moon is called as waning of the 
moon. The period between the new moon and full moon is called as the waxing of the 
moon. With the help of a calendar find out and tabulate the full moon and new moon 
days for this year. Calculate the exact duration taken for one cycle of waxing and 
waning of the moon. 

2. Rotation and Revolution of the Earth 

The Earth is always in motion. It 
has many movements. Rotation on its 
own axis and Revolution around the 
Sun are the two important movements 
of the earth. 


The Earth takes approximately 
23 hours and 56 minutes for one rotation 
on its axis. This movement is called as 
rotation, this movement causes day and 

All parts of the Earth do not 
experience day and night at the same 
time. The part of the Earth's surface 
which faces the Sun experiences day. 
The part of the Earth's surface which 
does not face the Sun experiences 

So when it is day in India, 
America which is on the other side of 
the Earth has night. 

Take a ball and keep it on the 
floor of a dark room. Focus the light 
from a torch on one part of the ball in the 
darkroom. What do you see? 

The light of the torch is seen only 
on the front portion of the ball. The other 
side of the ball is dark because light 
does not fall on it. It is assumed that the 
torch is the Sun, and the ball is the 

Similarly the surface of the Earth 
that faces the Sun has day and the 
surface of the Earth which does not 
face the Sun has night. 

In ancient times, it was believed 
that day and night was caused due to 
the rotation of the Sun around the 

Aryabhatta lived about 1500 
years ago. He was one among the 
ancient Indian astronomers. He 
explained scientifically that the Earth 
rotates on its own axis. 

When you travel on a boat down 
the river the banks of the river appear to 
move in the opposite direction. 

Similarly he said that the Sun 
remains in the same position, but 
because the Earth rotates on its own 
axis, it appears that the Sun moves 
around the Earth. 

In olden days, a day was 
calculated from the rising of the Sun on 
the first day to the rising of the Sun on 
the next day. Now, a day begins from 1 2 
o'clock midnight to 12 o'clock midnight 
the next day. 

The Earth not only rotates on its 
axis but it also revolves around the Sun 
in an elliptical orbit. 


The duration taken by the Earth 
to complete one revolution is called a 
year. Ayear consists of 365.24 days. 

How many times in a year does 
the Earth rotate? Calculate, discuss and 
check the answer with your teacher. 

The Earth's axis is not a real 
axis drawn around the ground. Some 
imagine it to be real. It is only an 
imaginary line that connects the North 
Pole with the South Pole. Does this 
axis pass through the centre of the 
Earth or not? Debate it with your 
teacher and check your answer. 

The Earth is inclined at an 
angle of 2314° from its central axis. 
This inclination causes seasonal 
changes, (see the picture) 

Awheel spins on its axis. This 
axis is the centre. Similarly when the 
Earth rotates, it rotates around the 
line that connects the North pole and 
the South pole. This imaginary line is 
called as its axis. Where is the 
Earth's axis located?Think- Discuss 
with your classmate. 

What would happen if the Earth^s 
axis were not inclined at 23i/2" but were 

If the Earth's axis were also flat 
then there would be six months of day 
and six months of night on earth for one 
revolution around the Sun. 

This situation prevails in Uranus, 
which can be seen in the picture above. 

n O 

Do the experiment and enjoy: Select a place facing 
the East, where the Sun rises in the morning. Select the place 
that exactly faces the Sun and place a stone on the wall which 
faces the Sun. Keep new stones every day regularly in a 
straight line. You will notice that the point at which the Sun 
rises shifts daily towards the North east or South east. 


Leap Year 
{A year with an extra day) 

The Earth does not exactly take 
365 days to complete one revolution 
around the Sun. It takes approximately 
365 Va days to complete one revolution. 

Forthe sake of convenience we 
consider only 365 days for one year. 
The remaining % day is added as one 
whole day to every fourth year. When 
this is added to the fourth year that year 
has one extra day which is called as 
leap year. During a leap year the extra 
day is added to the month of February. 
So in a leap year the month of February 
has 29 days. ie. Divide any given year 
by four. If you get a remainder it is not a 
leap year, if the remainder is zero then it 
is a leap year. 

Even if we consider every fourth 
year to be a leap year, a small mistake 
can happen. To avoid this mistake 
Pope Gregory in the ie*'' century made 
a small correction. According to this 
correction, it is not enough if we divide 
the years 1 800, 1 900, 2000 by four, but 
it should also be divided by four 

Thus 2000 B.C. was a leap year, 
but 2100 will not be a leap year, even 
though it is divided by four, because it 
will leave a remainder, when it is divided 
by four hundred. 

Revolution of the Earth 

Day and Night are the systematic 
changes that takes place everyday. 

Similarly there are seasonal 
changes every year. If you observe 
carefully you will notice this. The four 
seasons are Summer, Spring. Winter 
and Autumn. Why do seasonal changes 

The path which the Earth takes 
to revolve around the Sun is elliptical in 

Hence at one position the Earth 
is close to the Sun and at another 
position it is far away from the Sun . 

It was wrongly believed that 
seasonal changes take place due to 

Generally during July the Earth is 
far away from the Sun. In January it is 
very close to the Sun. 

If seasons are caused because 
of this, then it should be winter in July 
and summer in January. 

During December Tamil Nadu 
which is in the northern hemisphere 
experience severe winter whereas 
Australia which is in the southern 
hemisphere has summer. 

When we sweat out during April 
and May due to summer, Australia 
shivers with cold. 

Therefore it is clear that the 
seasons are not the same everywhere 
on the earth. If it is summer in the 
northern hemisphere, it is winter in the 
southern hemisphere and if it is winter in 
northern hemisphere, it is summer in the 
southern hemisphere. Hence there is 
reversal of seasons. We cannot say that 
the seasons are caused because of 
the earth's elliptical orbit. 

Then why do seasonal changes 

Seasons are caused because 
the earth's axis is inclined. Let us do an 
experiment to illustrate this. 




Let us take a torch. Spread a 
sheet of paper on the floor. Hold the 
torch exactly on top of the paper and 
with the help of a red colour pencil draw 
how much of light it spreads on the 
paper, (diagram) 

Now hold the torch at a slanting 
position over the paper. Even now light 
spreads on the paper. With the help of a 
blue colour pencil, mark how much light 
is spread on the paper . 

The area covered by the light 
that spread on the paper when the 
torch was held straight was less and 
the area covered by the light that 
spread on the paper when the torch 
was slanting was more. Hence when 
light falls in a slanting position the area 
covered is more. You will notice that the 
brightness of the light that falls also 
varies. The light that spreads on the 
paper varies from point to point and 
becomes less. 

The sunlight that falls on the 
North pole and South pole varies, 
because the axis of the earth is 

When asked where does the 
Sun rise? We immediately answer that 
the Sun rises in the east. 

But the truth is the Sun does not 
exactly rise in the east everyday. In 
Tamil Nadu, during most of the days of 
the year the Sun rises either in the 
south east or north east. 

On December 22"' the Sun 
which rises mainly in the south east, 
now starts moving towards the north. 
This is called Northern movement 
(Uthrayan) From then on the point from 
which the Sun rises moves towards the 
north east and on June 21^ it reaches 
its maximum. 

After which the points at which 
the Sun rises moves towards the south 
and this is called as Southern 
movement (Dakshinayan). Between 
these points, on two days the Sun rises 
exactly in the east. 

These are equal days and equal 
nights. March 21'' and September 23"^ 
are called as equinox, because on 
these two days, it is exactly 12 hours of 
day, and 12 hours of night, ie. equal day 
and equal night. 


Summer in the northem hemisphere 

June 21 
Winter in the southern hemisph 

Spring in the northern hemisphere 
March 21 
Autumn in the southern hemisphere 

Autumn in the northern hemisphere 
September 23 
Spring in the southern hemisphere 

inter in the northern hemisphere 
December 22 
Summer in the southern hemisphere 


The northern hemisphere is 
exposed to the Sun's light during the 
month of June, for six months, because 
the earth's axis is inclined. 

After six months the southern 
hemisphere is exposed to the Sun's 
light during the month of December. 
The Sun is overhead at the northern 
hemisphere and is exposed to the 
Sunlight. Hence the northern 
hemisphere receives the direct rays of 
the Sun. It is summer in this region. 

After six months when the 
southern hemisphere is exposed to the 
direct rays of the Sun, it is summer in 
the southern hemisphere. 

During this time Northern 
hemisphere receives the slanting rays 
of the Sun. Hence it is winter in the 
Northern hemisphere. 

In December, India and England 
celebrate Christmas as a winter 
festival, whereas in Australia it is 
summer, so Christmas is celebrated as 
a summer festive I in Australia. 

Picture 1 

North pole 

South pole 

Picture 2 

North pole 

South pole 

Picture 3 

North pole 

South pole 

Day and night at the poles 

Picture 1 

You will notice in the picture that the northern hemisphere 
faces the Sun during the month of June. Also observe the day and 
night line. You have to understand that due to the earth's rotation day 
and night changes occur in the equatorial region but the North pole 
has continuous daylight. At the same time, notice that the southern 
pole has continuous night. 

Picture 2 

Look at the picture. When the South pole faces the Sun 
during December, the North pole is completely dark and the South 
pole has continuous daylight. The inclination ofthe Earth's axis not 
only causes seasonal changes but there is something amazing about 
it. At the poles there are six months of continuous daylight and six 
months of continuous darkness. 

Picture 3 

The Sunlight falls vertically on the earth's axis on March 21" 
and September 23"'. Hence on these two days, day and night is 
equal in both the hemispheres. The days are equal to the nights all 
over the Earth. 


According to Tamil tradition there are six seasons, (for every two months 
there is one season) Ancient Tamil literature speaks about this. The six seasons are 
Khar, Kulir, Munpani, Pinpani, llavennil and Muthuvennil. But according to the 
international standard, only four seasons have been recognized. The four seasons 
are summer, winter, autumn and spring. 

What gets heated? 

Take two black coloured papers and two thermometers. Fix the thermometer 
on the black coloured paper. Place one paper on the ground in a horizontal position 
and the other paper in a slanting position and make sure that the Sun is 
approximately overhead. 

When the Sun is overhead the light falls vertically on the paper that is in a 
horizontal position. The paper that is in a slanting position receives the slanting rays 
of the Sun. Ensure that the shadow of the clouds and the students does not fall on 
both the papers. 

The temperature increases in both the thermometers. After a certain 
increase in temperature, the temperature remains constant at one stage. It will take 
about ten minutes for this to happen. Then compare both the temperatures and find 
out which received more heat. Discuss and find out the relationship between this 
experiment and how the temperature changes according to seasons on earth. 
Summer is hot because the earth receives the direct rays of the Sun and winter is 
cold because the earth receives the slanting rays of the Sun. 

Shadow game 

Fix a pole in an upright position in a playground. Get the help of your teacher 

to do it. The pole will cast a shadow in the morning. Mark accurately the end of the 

shadow with a stone. Measure the distance of the shadow and make a note of the 


Discuss in the class where the shadow will 
be and how long will it be after 30 minutes. With the 
help of a stone, mark the end of the shadow which 
each student indicates. After 30 minutes find out 
where actually the shadow will be and measure the 
length of the shadow. 

10.30 a.m 
11.00 a.m 

11.30 a.m 
12.00 noon 
12.30 p.m 

1.00 p.m 
1.30 p.m 

The Sun is exactly overhead during midday. 
The shadow is the shortest during midday. Not only 
that, the shadow of the pole will face the north. The 
shadow is the longest during the morning and in the 
evening. Notice the direction of the movement of 
the shadow in the clockwise direction. 



Fix two nails on a board. Take a thin tiiread. iVIeasure twice the distance 
between the two nails. 

Make a knot by bringing the two ends of the 
thread together. Fix the thread on both the nails. Place 
a pencil somewhere at a point on the thread and pull it 
tightly. Draw a line by holding the pencil tightly. Now you 
will get an oval shape. 

A circle has only one centre. But an ellipse has 
two convex centres other than the centre. The position of these two nails are the 
convex centres of the ellipse. We know that the Earth takes an elliptical path to 
revolve around the Sun. 

The Sun is situated in one of the convex centre of the ellipse and not in the 
centre of the ellipse. 


I. Choose the correct answer : 

1. The earth is inclined at an angle of degree. 

a) 2372 b) 6672 c) 90 

2. Rotation results in 

a) Seasonal changes b) Day and night changes 
c) Northern and Southern movement 

3. In a leap year February has days. 

a) 28 b) 29 c) 27 

II. Answer the following questions : 

1 . Why does day and night changes happen? 

2. When it is summer in the northern hemisphere, why is it winter in the 
southern hemisphere? 

3. Why do the poles have six months of day and six months of night? 


1 . Identify the leap years between 1 999 to 201 1 . 

2. What will be the result, if the Earth rotates in the same place? 

3. Find out which days of the year have the longest day and the longest 

4. With the help of a map or a globe find out what season will India 
experience if Australia has winter? 



Is there a mountain, a sea or a 
river in your place? Mountains, plateaus 
and plains are important landforms. 
Landforms witli high peaks are called 

A continuous stretch of 
mountains is called a mountain range. 
The highest mountain range in the world 

Study the physical map of India and 
locate another mountain range. 

The land that is higher than the 
surrounding region with a flattened top 
is called a plateau. The plateau of Tibet 
is the highest plateau in the world. 

With the help of your teacher 
locate the plateau in South India. 

A relatively flat and low lying land 
surface, with almost no difference 
between its highest and lowest points is 
a plain. The area where the River 
Ganges flows is one of the most 
important plains in the world. 

Locate the plains in the banl<s of 
River Cauvery, River Tamiraparani and 
River Palar on a physical map. 

Trichy, Ooty, Kodail^anal and Theni are 
parts of Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu is a part 
of India. 

Find out : In which landform is 
Rameshwaram and Tiruchendur 

With the help of your teacher find 
out whether your native place is located 
on a plateau or plain or on a mountainous 

India is a part of the continent of 
Asia. Countries like India, China, Russia 
and Pakistan are situated in Asia. 
Countries like England, France and 
Germany are situated in the continent of 

There are seven continents like 
Asia, Europe, North America, South 
America, Africa,Australia and Antarctica. 

Large land masses are called 

The seven continents: 

1 .Asia:- It is the largest continent. 
It is situated in the northern 
hemisphere. Our Country, India is 
situated in Asia. 

The cold Gobi desert and the 
Himalayan mountains are located in this 



2. Africa :- 

It is the second largest continent 
in the world. This continent is situated 
in both, the northern and southern 
hemisphere. The equator divides the 
continent into two equal halves. 

River Nile, (6,695kms) the longest 
river in the world and the Sahara, the 
largest desert in the world, is found in 
this continent. This continent is rich in 
mineral resources and has dense 


This continent is surrounded by 
the Arctic ocean, Atlantic ocean and 
Pacific Ocean. The Rocky mountains, 
situated along the west coast is a very 
long chain of mountains. 

4. South America :- 

This continent lies almost 
entirely in the southern hemisphere. 
The Andes, the world's longest 
mountain range and River Amazon 
(6,586 kms) the world's largest river is 
situated in this continent. 


This continent lies to the west of 
Asia. The Alps mountain range is 
situated in this continent. 


Australia is referred to as 'Island 
continent', because it is surrounded by 
oceans an all the four sides. It consists 
of many islands like New Zealand and 
Fiji. Fiji islands, Papua and New Guinea 
are called oceanic islands. The Great 
Barrier Reef, the world's largest coral 
reef is situated off the east coast of 

7. Antarctica :- 

This continent is situated in the 
South Pole and is entirely covered with 
snow. It is a very cold place. Penguins, 
Seals and other living creatures live 

Our Country has set up the 
Dakshin Gangotri and Maitri research 
stations. Throughout the year Indian 
scientists conduct many experiments 
in this continent. 


Antarctica - Maitri research stations 


A piece of land surrounded by 
water on all sides is called an island. 
Sri Lanka is an island. A group of 
islands is called an archipelago. 

Locate an island group 
belonging to India. 



Andaman lalaintt 

North Andaman 
Middle Andaman 

Aniaman Saa 

Indian Oc«ai 

Lower Andaman 
,?Wt Blair 




71% (two third) of the earth's 
surface is covered by water. A large 
stretch of water covering a huge area is 
called an Ocean. Just like the 
mountains, plains and plateaus are part 
of the Earth, oceans are also a part of 
the earth. 

There are five oceans on the 
Earth. They are the Pacific ocean, the 
Atlantic ocean, the Indian ocean, the 
Arctic ocean and the Antarctic ocean. 

For our convenience oceans are 
divided into seas. The sea to the east 
of Tamil Nadu is called the Bay of 
Bengal and the sea to the west of 
Kerala is called Arabian sea. 

Locate two other seas on the world 

1. Pacific Ocean: 

It is the deepest ocean in the 
world. The volcanic mountains 
surrounding the Pacific Ocean is 
called the Pacific Ring of Fire. 

The deepest Mariana Trench is located 
in the Pacific Ocean. This trench is so 
deep that Mt. Everest is not enough to fill 

2. Atlantic Ocean: 

It is the second largest ocean in 
the world. Hurricanes are very 
common in this ocean. 

3. Indian Ocean: 

It is the third largest ocean in the 
world. India receives rainfall from the 
monsoons which originate in this 

4. Antarctic Ocean: 

The ocean surrounding the 
continent of Antarctica is called the 
Southern ocean or Antarctic 

S.Arctic Ocean: 

This is the smallest ocean in the 
world. It surrounds the North Pole. 
This ocean has many icebergs. 

Land, Water, Air- 
Apart from the seas, the rivers, 
lakes, ponds and tanks are the other 
water bodies. The peaks of the 
Himalayas, Arctic circle and Antarctic 
circle are covered with snow and not 
with water. 

The atmosphere is filled with 
water vapour, cloud and moisture. The 
water on earth is found in three forms 
namely solid, liquid and gas. Apart from 
land and water, air is present in the 

Though we are always 
surrounded by air, we feel its presence, 
only when there iswind and cyclones. 



The solid portion of the earth on 
which we live is called the Lithosphere. 
Water covers a large area of the earth's 
surface and this area is called 
Hydrosphere. The gaseous layer that 
surrounds the earth is called 

Apart from water, land and air, 
the life that exists here is unique to this 
planet. Plants, animals and millions of 
micro organisms are found on the land 

Let us learn 

The zone in which living 
organisms exist is called as Biosphere. 
Lithosphere, Hydrosphere and 
Atmosphere together forms Biosphere. 
Hence if any one of these is polluted, 
the living organisms are affected. 

Trees, plants, creepers, worms, 
insects, birds, animals, micro 
organisms and other millions of living 
forms exist in the biosphere. The living 
organisms extend upto many 
kilometers in the atmosphere. 

Apart from many kinds of fish, 
plankton which serves as food for the 
fish are also found in the ocean. 

Living organisms are found at 
great depths were geysers are present. 
Worms and micro organisms are 
present deep in the soil. Many species 
of plants and animals are present on 


Peninsula is 
a piece of land that is 
surrounded by water 
on tliree sides. India 
is a peninsula. 

A strait is a 
narrow stretch of 
water that connects 
two large water 

For example 
the Palk strait 
between India and 
Sri Lanka. 

A gulf is a hollow 
carved out in the sea coast 
which lets the water reach 
deep inland. Abayisaninlet 
of the sea with a wider 
opening than a gulf. 
Examples of these are the 
Bay of Bengal and the 
Persian Gulf. Which are the 
gulf countries? Why are they 
called so? Refer a world 

An isthmus is a narrow strip of land 
connecting two large land masses. The Isthmus 
of Panama connects North America with South 



Lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere do not exist separately. They 
are interdependent and interact with each other. For example sea water evaporates 
and forms water vapour. This mixes with the atmosphere. The surface of the Earth 
is heated by the sun's rays, as a result of this air on the land surface gets heated. 

This hot air rises upward towards the cooler atmosphere. Therefore changes 
take place in the atmosphere. As a result of this, air moves and causes winds and 

Land, water and air together help the plants to grow. 

Structure of the Earth 

Earth's crust 

When an apple is cut into two halves you can see the skin, flesh and seeds. 
Similarly what can you see if you cut the earth in to two halves? 

The core is in the semi solid state. Nickel and iron is found in abundance in this 
layer. This is called as the inner core. Minerals are found in the molten stage around 
the core. Here the temperature is very high. It is approximately 5,000°C. 

The core is surrounded by the Mantle. 85% of the Earth's minerals are found 
here. The entire layer consists of rocks in the solid and semi solid state. Like the skin 
of the apple, the Earth's outer crust is a thin layer. 

The continents and oceans are found in this layer. The thickness of the Earth's 
crust below the oceans is 5-1 km. The thickness of the crust varies from 30 - 50 kms. 
on the continents. 



I, Choose the correct answer : 

1 . Land that is surrounded by water on all the four sides is called an 

a) strait 

b) island 

c) peninsula 

2. The world's deepest Mariana trench is located in the Ocean. 

a) Pacific b) Atlantic c) Arctic 

3. Sh Lanka is an . 

a) island b) peninsula c) strait 

II. Answer the following questions : 

1. Distinguish between a plain and a plateau. 

2. Define a peninsula. Give an example. 

3. Why is the earth called a 'living planet'? 

III. Map skill: 

1. Mark the continents and the oceans on a world map. 

2. Mark a few peninsulas, bays, gulfs, straits, isthumus and islands on a 
world map. 

Exercise 1 

World map 


W— I— E 

Mark the continents and the oceans on the world map 



Z ^ 









CN CO ^ 

CM CO '^ 

1- CN CO ^ 

1- CM CO '^ 

CN CO '^ 








What is the shape of the Earth in 
which we live? Is it in the shape of a 
ball? Is it in the shape of an orange? 
What is its true shape? 



people had many wrong ideas about 
the shape of the Earth because they did 
not know the shape of the Earth. We 
sent rockets and satellites into space 
and when the Earth was viewed from 
space, many old beliefs changed. Will 
you be able to see the complete shape 
of an object if you keep it very close to 
your eyes? If you keep your book very 
close to your nose, you will not be able 
to see its full view. Only if you keep it at 
a certain distance you will be able to 
see it fully. 

The Earth is a big sphere. Our 
Earth is slightly bulged at the equator 
and slightly flattened at the poles. The 
shape of our Earth is unique. The shape 
of the Earth is called as a Geoid. 


A map is a representation of the 
Earth or part of it and is drawn to scale 
on paper or on cloth. 

What is meant by scale? Can 
we drawthe map of our village or town 
on a sheet of paper? Even if we draw it 
on a large sheet of paper, will we be 
able to spread this paper and view the 

Hence to represent one 
kilometre on land, we reduce it and 
draw it as one centimetre on the map. 
We draw the map of the entire place in 
the similar way and say that the map is 
drawn to a scale of 1 centimetre =1 

In earlier days, maps were not 
required because the people lived in 
one place. Then people started to move 
from place to place, either in search of 
food or due to the change in seasons. 

Later, merchants travelled from 
one country to another country for trade 
and commerce. People used maps to 
travel in the correct route. Migration 
created the need for maps. 





To prepare and understand 
maps we need training. Ifwewanttogo 
to a cinema hall in our neighbouring 
city, we may not know where it is. 
Our friend would say, "Don't you know 
it is in the street behind the bus stop 
which is opposite to the telephone 

If you still don't understand, he 
will draw a route map on a paper. This 
is a map without a scale. This Is called 

a sketch map. 

An architect or a civil engineer 
will draw a plan of a building before 
construction. Have you seen that 
plan? (During an activity class. You can 

bring such a plan to your classroom 
and the students can have a look at It.) 
It is called a blue print which is 
commonly called as a plan. 

World maps and maps of 
different countries look better than 
these maps. 

Think: Will maps have only 

Conventfonal Signs and 
Symbols help us to understand 
directions and different features on a 

The direction is indicated on the 
top right hand corner of every map like 
the one given below. This is the sign 
that shows the direction in a map. 

Let us do 

Draw a sketch map to show the 
route from your home to school. 

Sketch Map 



Bharathi Nagar 

m i m iii iH 




Railway station 

Kaveri Nagar 










We know which is the north and 
the south direction of the place where 
we live. We can easily understand the 
direction by unfolding the map and by 
placing the north of the map in line with 
the north of our place. 


Scale is indicated at the bottom 
of the map. Scale is the distance 
between two points places on the map 
to the corresponding distance on the 

Conventional Signs and symbols 

Can we draw on the map the 
mountains, forests, rivers, roads, 
bridges, buildings, railway lines and 
other land features of the Earth in the 
same size and shape? 

We draw them with the help of certain 
symbols. These symbols are used 
within the map itself. The explanation 
for these symbols are given on the right 
or left corner of the map. It would be 
easy if the same symbols are used 
everywhere, hence standard, uniform 
Conventional symbols are used 
throughout the world . 

Conventional Signs 

and symbols 

International boundaries 

State boundaries 

District boundaries 

Railway lines 

Railway station 






^^ • ^^_ • 



Classification of maps 

All the objects and the 
information about the earth cannot be 
shown on the same map. Hence maps 
can be classified into three types. 

1. Physical features like mountains, 
plateaus, rivers and oceans are drawn 
on a Physical map. eg. Refer the 
Physical map of India which is given. 

2. Countries, states, districts, cities, 
villages and other boundaries are 
drawn on a Political map. eg. Refer the 
Political map of India and District map 
of Tamil Nadu which are given. 

3. Maps that show temperature, forest, 
and minerals resources are drawn 
based on a theme, hence they are 
called Thematic map. eg. the Transport 
map of India and the Industrial map of 
Tamil Nadu which are given. 

Uses of maps 

1 . It is used to locate places. 

2. It is used to locate resources 
that are found on the earth. 

3. It helps the military to move its 

4. It helps in planning. 

5. It helps us to know the 
movement of the satellite and 
planets in the sky. 

6. It is used for teaching and 
learning in a class room. 







Jammu & Kashmir 



Gandhi Nagar* 

Dadra Nagar 


^ Bengalum •-^y"^ •Chennai 

Arabian Sea 

^^^ — tfPuducherry 

Bay of Bengal 


-^\ Tamil Nadu 







Trivandrum« /\ 



^ Sritanka 



\ y 

-C -D 



CO c 



iS « 

Indian ocean 














</• • '.SO 

f'^ Bay of Ben§^l ' ^ _ 

f'i a.^om:^')^^ 

inan^M^ . ^b.e.nnai^-Port Blair V 

.^•^hengalpatfu ■- • ^'""■^1=' - ■"-"™."..r..-..:?..:.s^.r. J 

-^ f>. Port Blair 

A" A / Maffarajr'' — ^: — Ramesw^ram ""' 

^ Cochin ^ / ..mir — i::^ — V — Tuticoriry 



Yangoon • 






Air Transport 

- ' Water Transport 

■m-H-hl-l-H-hl- Rail Transport 

Q International Airports 








We cannot see the complete 
shape of the Earth from the Earth. 
Globe is a model of the Earth, which 
helps us to locate continents, oceans, 
islands and other landforms with the 
help of the latitudes and longitudes on 
which they are located. 

A Globe is a smafi true model of 
the earth. Globe is also made to an 
inclined axis like the rotating earth which 
is inclined at an angle of 23^/4 ** on its 

The Lines on the Earth 

When we travel from one place 
to another we enquire what is the 
distance between the two places. We 
erect milestones on roads to show the 
distance (kilometre). We say that the 
place is 1 5 km towards the east. 

Where is a mountain located on 
the earth? Where is a country located 
on the earth? At which point exactly is 
the ship that sails on the sea? How 
can we accurately calculate these 

We draw few imaginary lines on 
the earth's surface. When we want to 
locate a place, we try to find out 
between which two lines this place is 

Latitudes are imaginary lines 
that run from the east to the west on a 
globe, (on a map also) 

Longitudes are imaginary lines 
that run vertically(or) from the north to 
the south. 

The line that runs in the centre of 
the Earth from east to west is called as 
the Equator. 

The Earth is a sphere and it 
consists of 360'. The equator is the 0° 
latitude. This is an important latitude. 
Ptolemy was the first man to draw 
latitudes and longitudes. He was a 
Greek astronomer who lived in the 2"'' 
century B.C. (The world map that was 
drawn by him is given below). The 
Earth's surface to the north of the 
Equator (0° latitude) is called as 
Northern hemisphere. The Earth's 
surface to the south of the equator is 
called as the Southern hemisphere. 




Ptolemy's world map 







Puvi, Boomi , Ulagam, Ulagu, 
Gnalam are some of the names given 
forthe earth in Tamil. 

A space observatory is located 
at Greenwich in London. The longitude 
that passes through Greenwich is called 
as 0° longitude. This is also called as the 
Greenwich longitude. 

To identify a particular latitude we 
have to say how many degrees it is from 

the north or south of the Equator. For 
eg.10"N latitude is the 10*" line north of 
the Equator and 10°S latitude is the 10^ 
line south of Equator. 

Similarly it is indicated as ICW 
and 10'E of the Greenwich meridian 
because the Greenwich meridian is 
considered as a central longitude. W 
stands for places west of the Greenwich 
meridian and 'E' stands for the places 
east of Greenwich meridian. 

How can we locate India? 

Location of India 











s 1 












36 °N 


24 *> 


We locate India between 8"N 
to 37°N latitude and 68"E to 
97"E longitude. 

Let us do : 

With the help of a globe or a 
map find out the latitudinal 
and longitudinal extent of 
few countries and islands. 

68 °E 72° 76° 80° 84° 88° 92° 96 °E 





I. Choose the correct answer 

1 . The imaginary lines that are drawn from the east to the west on a globe 
is called . 

a) Latitude 

b) Earth's axis 

c) Longitude 

2. 0' Longitude is called as the 

a) Greenwich Meridian 

b) Latitude 

c) Earth's axis 

3. Map that shows the continents, countries, capitals is called as 


a) Physical 

b) Political 

c) Thematic 

II. Answer the following questions : 

1 . What is a map? 

2. Explain thematic maps? 

3. What is the latitudinal and longitudinal extent of India? 

III. Map skill: 

1 . Look at any physical, political and thematic map with the help of your 
teacher and answer the following questions: 

a) What is the scale of the map? 

b) What is the information given? 

c) Tabulate the explanation given about conventional signs and 

2. On a political map of India mark the states and its capitals. 





India - Political 




Mark the states and its capitals on the map of India 




The basic needs of man are food, 
clothing and shelter. The food we eat like rice, 
wheat etc. are cultivated in the land. The 
farmers cultivate food grains. This Is termed as 
agriculture. Agriculture is the first known 
occupation to man. 

Man who lived in caves, to protect 
himself from rain, cold and heat later started to 
live In houses. Cities began to emerge and 
man's need started to increase. 

To fulfill his needs, he started to 
manufacture garments, footwear, bi-cycles, 
cars, radios and television sets. 

In our daily life we utilize many things. 
These things are sold in shops. To buy and sell 
commodities we use money. If we save money 
It is good for us and the country. 




Food helps us to grow. 
Education is necessary to grow 
intellectually. Medical facilities protect 
us from diseases. Teachers impart 
education, and doctors treat patients. 
Along with them Government 
employees work for the welfare of the 

Agriculturists, labourers and 
employees help to improve the 
economy of the country. This Is called 
as National income- What an individual 
earns is termed as Per Capita Income, 

Many people do not receive 
income, don't they? Should we 
provide them with food, clothing and 
shelter? The Government helps these 
people. Through this they receive their 

basic requirements. This is called 

1 . Production 

2. Consumption 

3. Distribution 

are the basic divisions in 

We have learnt about 
production. Discuss in the class and list 
the requirements of the food, textile 
production as well as the tools and 
implements used for the construction of 
buildings. Because of the farmers we 
are able to obtain food grains. The 
industrial workers manufacture 
commodities required for our country. 


Now the production is complete. 
Will these products reach the people 
immediately? It is necessary for the 
buyers to purchase these products and 
transport them to the markets. Then 
only we can purchase the products 
needed. A market is a place where 
things are bought and sold. When 
people purchase commodities from the 
market to satisfy their requirements, it is 
called consumption, 

The buying and selling of 
commodities is termed as trade. 
People who buy and sell things are 
called traders. Finished products are 
bought by traders and sold in the 
markets. People who buy and sell 
large quantities of commodities are 
called wholesale merchants. People 
who buy and sell small quantities are 
called retailers. When there is surplus 
of commodities there is a fall in price. 
When there is deficit of commodities 
there is a rise in price. 

The Government supplies 
essential commodities like rice, dhal, 
sugar and oil through fair price shops. 
The Government has taken several 
steps to control price rise through the 
enforcement of laws. When there is a 
shortage of commodities the 
Government imports them from other 
countries and distributes it through fair 
price shops. 

As the demand increases there 
is an increase in the production, 
consumption and distribution. This is 
termed as Economic Development. 

What should be produced? 

How does production take 
place? These are monitored by the 
Government. The Government helps 
in the stable development of the 
country's economy. 

As you learn more about 
Economics you will learn new facts. 

Amartliya Sen 
Scholar in Economics 



Those who study Economics becomes 
scholars. To prepare the Central and 
State Government annual budget , it is 
necessary to have a knowledge of 

A sound knowledge of Economics will 
surely help in the developmental work 
in all fields. In our country Amarthya 
Sen received the Nobel Prize for 
Economics. From this you will learn 
about the importance of Economics. 


I. Answer in one or two sentences 

1 . What are the basic needs of man? 

2. What are the requirements for food production? 

3. What are the three divisions of Economics? 

4. Why is it necessary to study Economics? 

II. Fillin the blanks 

To fulfill his needs, man started to 

When there is surplus of commodities there is a 

in price. 

of our country received the Nobel prize for Economics. 

When there is deficit of commodities in the market there is a 
in price 

Match the following 

1 . Economy of the country 

2. People who buy and sell goods 

3. To attain self sufficiency 

4. Food, clothing and shelter 


Knowledge of Economics 
is necessary 
basic needs 
national income 

Class activities: 
1 . Form 

students into groups of six. In these groups 
as producers, two as traders, and two as consumers. 

2. Debate. Who is more important- producers or traders? 

3. Calculate your family's annual income and expenditure. 
Discuss ways by which you can increase you r savings. 

4. Calculate the amount spent by your parents for your 
education during the academic year. 

two act 




Inian, a student of standard six 
was reading the newspaper. He was 
astonished. An amazing discovery! An 
animal called Dinosaur lived many 
million years ago. The eggs of the 
Dinosaur were excavated nearAriyalur. 
They belonged to the pre-historic 
period. Then what is 'pre-historic 

Can you tell us the history of your 

1 . What is your father's name? 

2. What is your grandfather's 

3. What is your great grandfather's 

4. What is your grandfather's 
grandfather's name? 

5. What is your grandfather's 
grandfather's father's name? 

You can answer the first two 
questions only. But we don't know the 
answers to questions such as the 
names of our grandfather's father and 
grandfather's grandfather. If this is the 
case, what are the evidences to find 
about the people who lived hundred, 
two hundred, five hundred and 
thousand years ago. The sources about 
these are known as History. What is 
History? History tells about the people 
who lived in the past with evidences 
according to the ages. 

The Early men 

From where do we get these old 
things? Who has discovered all these? 
Read this news and find out. The 
archaeological excavation is going on 
for hundred years in Athichanallur, 
which is in Tirunelveli District in Tamil 
Nadu. Recently in 2004 ,they excavated 
more than 160 burial urns in one place. 
This proved that people lived in that 
place long ago. 

The written and archaeological 
evidences that tell us about the period 
in which people lived, events, food 
habits, customs, culture, forms of 
government and literature are known 
as historical evidences. History can be 
divided into pre-history and historical 
period. Historical period has written 
evidences and other evidences. The 
written evidences are literary work, 
historical notes, stone edicts, copper 
plates and palm leaves. 


Evidences to know about pre-historic 


To know about the pre-historic 
period, there are evidences such as the 
things that belonged to that period, 
ruins, fossils, horns and bones of 
animals, tools made of stones, skulls 
and deposits (impressions) which are 
found in different places around the 
world as well as in India. With the help of 
all these we know about the pre-historic 
period of India. 

The Pre-historic period can be classified 

• PalaeolithicAge - Old Stone Age 
(BC 10000 years ago) 

• Neolithic Age- New Stone Age 
(BC 1 0000 -BC 4000) 

• Chalcolithic Age - Copper Stone Age 

• Iron Age - Iron Age 

1 . Old StoneAge: ( PalaeolithicAge ) 

With the help of the tools used by 
early man, we can divide the stone age 
into Old stone age and New stone age. 
He was a nomad. He lived in the jungle. 
He took shelter on the branches of 
trees,in holes and caves. He discovered 
fire by using the flint stone. The primitive 
man was scared of thunder and 
lightning and worshipped them. 

He had to protect himself from 
cold, Sun and rain. He wore dresses 
made out of leaves, skin of animals and 
barks of trees. He used stones, 
branches of trees, bones and horns of 
the animals as weapons. 

He ate vegetables, fruits, roots 
and meat of animals which he gathered 
from the jungle. Since he could not find 
food in one place he went from place to 
place in search of food. 

Eariymen - Making Tools 

Words giving the same meaning with 
little difference: 

some years ago, many years ago, 
ancient, long long ago, from time 
immemorial, primitive. 

Era of some important events 

> Beginning of the Earth - 
4.6 Billion years ago 

> Appearance of man - 4000 
years ago (Homosepians) 

> Beginning of agriculture-8000 
years ago 

> Beginning of the cities - 
4700 years ago 


- Before Christ 


-Anno Domini 


- Common Era 


- Before Common Era 


- Birtii of Thiruvalluvar 


- Before Tiiiruvalluvar 


- After Tiiiruvalluvar 


Did the primitive man store tine 

Where and how did he store? 

Did he share? 

Why did he gather food? 

Did he preserve the food? 

Why should the food be 

Name the food items that we 
preserve and store nowadays. 

When he did not find vegetables, 
fruits and roots, he hunted animals. He 
used stones, branches, bones, horns of 
animals etc. to hunt animals. In the 
beginning he hunted small animals all 
alone. Then they hunted in groups. 
Both men and women involved 
themselves in hunting. 

In the Pimpet Ca cave in Madhya 
Pradesh we see a painting. This depicts 
a woman with her child tied to her waist 
throwing an arrow. From this we know 
that women were also involved in 

What for the early man hunted 
the wild animals? Is it to protect himself 
from the wild animal orfor food? 

Why has the government amended 
laws to protect the wild animals? 

Places in India where the Old stone 
age tools were found: 

Soan River bank at Madhya 
Pradesh, Pimpet Ca,Maheshwa 
(Madhya Pradesh), Luni Valley in 
Rajasthan, Pagalkhat, (Karnataka), 
Karnool caves, Renigunta (Andhra 
Pradesh), Vadamadurai, 
Athirambakkam, Pallavaram, 
Kanchipuram, Vellore, Thiruvallur 
(Tamil Nadu). 

2, New Stone Age: (Neolithic Age) 

Old stone age man went from 
place to place in search of food and 
hunting animals. Then he learnt to 
produce his food. He domesticated 
animals like goat, cow and hen. 

The first animal he tamed was 
dog, which helped him in hunting. He 
reared goats and cows and had milk as 
his food. The next stage in the evolution 
of man is known as New Stone Age. 

During this age, he used polished, 
carved, sharp stone weapons. In this 
period, he started to produce food. 
Wheel was invented. As a result of this, 
he was able to transport things from one 
place to another easily. With the help of 
wheels he made pots. He sharpened the 
crude weapons and attached them with 
handles made up of wood and bones. 
Metal was in use. Copper was the first 
metal used by him. 


• They built mud houses with 
thatched roofs and began to live in 
groups in small villages. 

• The houses were round or oval 
shaped. They were built below the 
ground level and thatched with wooden 

• Agriculture was their main 

• They domesticated and reared 

• Axes, handles made out of bones, 
fishing hooks, needle and chopper 
were in use. 

• New stone age weapons were 
found inTirunelveli, Salem, Pudukottai, 

• During the New stone age they had 
the practice of burying the dead. The 
dead were buried along with their 
tamed animals in the frontyard of their 

Places where New stone age 
weapons were found: 

Tirunelveli, Thandikkudi, Pudukottai, 
Tiruchirapalli and Salem. 

3. Copper Age : (ChaicolithicAge) 

At the end of the New stone age, 
man came to know the use of copper. 
He made tools out of copper as well as 
small stones. So this age is known as 
Chalcolithic Age. They drew colourful 
pictures with geometrical patterns on 

the pots they used. The Harappan 
culture belonged to this age. Let us learn 
in detail about this in the next lesson. 

Chalcolithic Age weapons 

4. Iron Age: 

The period when the tools were 
made up of iron was called Iron Age. 
Household articles and agricultural 
implements were made out of iron. 
They learnt to melt the metal and make 
weapons. They were creative. Vedic 
period belonged to the Iron Age. 

List the tools made out of iron 
which are in use now. Compare 
them with the tools used before. 

Places where the stone age weapons 
were found in Tamil Nadu: 

• Old stone age weapons - 
Pallavaram, Kanchipuram, Vellore, 

• New stone age weapons - 
Tirunelveli, Salem, Pudukottai, 
Tiruchirapalli, Thandikkudi (Hills of 



+ Chromium = 

= Silver 


+ Lead 

= Bronze 


+ Zinc = 

= Brass 


+ Maganese = 

= Steel 

Important words from the lesson: 

• Archaeology • Excavation 

• Primitive • Stone Age 

• Copper Age • Iron Age 

• Historical evidences • Deposits 

• Million • Bronze 



1 . Choose the correct answer : 
1.Pre-history means 

a) period of written evidences 

b) period of no written evidences 

c) period which have all the 3 evidences like time, place and events 

2. Old stone age people 

a) wore cotton clothes 

b) wore leaves, barks of trees and skin of animals 

c) wore woollen clothes 

3. Thefirstanimaltamed by primitive man 

a) cow 

b) horse 

c) dog 

II. Fill in the blanks: 

1 . The early man depending on nature. 

2. To know the truths of ancient period, we must read . 

3. The Old stone age man used stones. 

4. The primitive age is the age the ancient period. 

5. We must read to know about the primitive age. 

6. was the first animal domesticated by the early man. 

7. New stone age man used 

to make pots. 

III. Match the following 
I.Tamil Nadu 

2. Andra Pradesh 

3. Madhya Pradesh 

4. Karnataka 



IV. Answer the following: 

1. What is history? 

2. List the evidences to know about history. 

3. What do you nnean by pre-historic period? 

4. Whatare the four classifications of the pre-historic period? 

5. What were the dresses of the early man? 

6. Draw and compare any four tools of Old stone age and New stone age. 

Prepare a tabular column from the informations you have gathered 
from this lesson. 


Stages of man/occupation 

Tools used 

Old stone age 

Primitive man - 
Gathering food, Hunting 

Crude stones 

New stone age 

Stone age man - Rearing 
of animals, Agriculture 

Polished and carved stones 

Copper age 

Iron age 

Write the names of your family members 

Write the name 

Write the name 

1. Father: 


Mother's father : (Grandfather) 

Mother's mother: (Grandmother) 

Grandmother's mother : 

2. Father's father : (Grandfather) 

Father's mother : (Grandmother) 

3. Grand father's father : 

(Greatgrandfather) : 

Grandmother's father : 

Grand father's mother : 

(Great grandmother) 




Why do we call the modern age as Computer age? After the invention 
of electricity, computer is regarded as the most important one and so it is 
called Computer age. i 

In the previous lesson, we 
studied about the early man. The period 
when early man used stone was known 
as stone age. The first metal known to 
man was copper. So he used both 
copper and stone. That age was known 
as Copper Stone Age. During that 
period there existed an ancient 
civilization in India which was the Indus 
Valley Civilization. (Harappa) 

This is the beginning of the Indian 


In 1856, when the British ruled 
India, they laid railway lines on the 
banks of River Ravi, a branch of Indus 
river. They found a mound of sand. 
There they saw well- burnt bricks and 

They took those bricks and constructed 
the railway lines. So they destroyed 
many such walls of the buildings. 

In 1921 , archaeologists found out 
that it was the ancient city of India. 
Harappa in Sindhi means 'Buried City'. 
The cities discovered after the Indus 
Valley Civilization were named as 
Harappan Civilization. 

This civilization flourished in 
India about 4700 years ago. Likewise, 
the ruins of the cities were found in 
Mohenjo-daro, Chanhu-daro, 
Kalibangan and Lothal. 

The Great Bath: 

The most important structure 
found in the citadel was the Great Bath. 
It was built of kiln-fired bricks and 
sealedwith a lining of bitumen. 


Indus Valley Civilization 








--O^ ^Tsuti 



There were steps on both the 
sides of the pool. There were rooms on 
all the sides of the pool for changing 
clothes. It was fed by water from a well 
and the dirty water was emptied by a 
huge drain. 

Buildings : 

Houses were built in grid system. 
There were houses which had two 
rooms and multi storied houses, public 
hall, granary and public buildings built 
out of bricks. There were no windows in 
the houses. Every house had a well and 
a bathroom. There were dustbins in 
front of the houses. 

Town planning : 

The Indus valley cities were well 
planned. The northern part of the town 
was narrow and elevated. The 
excavators considered that those were 
constructed on security basis. The 
eastern side was broad and lowered. 
We get more information from this town 

Mohenjo - daro in Sindhi means 
'Mound of Dead' 

The town was built with experts 
who were well versed in the art of town 

There would have been an 
administrative committee in the city to 
administer it. 


Houses were built on both the sides 
of the broad streets in systematic order. 

The houses had flat roofs and 
were many storied. 


The public drainage system, the 
Great Bath, the public hall, street lights 
and the provision of dustbins show that 
the administrative system was well 

Drainage system: 

The drains from the houses were 
covered. They ran along the sides of 
the streets which were connected to the 
street drains. 

They had manholes at regular 
intervals for cleaning. 

Applied Science: 

The science and technology such as 
construction, selections of lands , 
measurement of plots, foundation, 
selection of quality building materials 
and geometrical figures were in use. 

We have an idea about ancient 
man from the archaeological 
evidences. This is the place where you 
can write your ideas. 

List out the similarities and the 
difTerences between the Great Bath of 
the Indus Valley and the ponds that are 
seen in the temples of Tamil Nadu. 
What types of machinery would they 
have used to fill the ponds? 

Life style of Indus Valley people : 

Row houses were built for the 
employers of town administration. 
People exported and imported things 
like metals, precious stones, 
ornaments and various useful 

Drainage system - Mohenjo-dano 

Statue of a man with beard made of limestone 


Dancing girl 



Pieoee of broken pots excavated from Harappa 

Pate: They made pots with the help of potter^ 
wheal. TTiey were polished end coloured. 



There would have been workers 
like document writers, seal makers, 
carpenters, doll makers, masons and 
other artisans. 

They also found out dolls made 
out of ten^acotta and other playing 
articles out of shells, brass, copper, 

They used copper and bronze to 
make weapons, household articles and 
tools. Gold and silver were used to 
make ornaments. Weights were made 
outofa kind of stone. 

Terracotta seals: 

Hundreds of rectangular seals 
were discovered here. Pictographic 
writings were written on them. The 
script had not been deciphered yet. On 
the terracotta seals, bulls, cart, dove, 
boats and a figure of a human 
meditating are seen. 


The terracotta planks discovered 
here were engraved with letters. The 
figures that were engraved on the seals 
and the pictorial writing showed their 
skill of writing. They were pictographic 

Each picture depicts a specific 
meaning. Each page was written from 
right to left and left to right. 

These writings are related with 
the ancient Tamil writings. There are 
varied opinions regarding this. 

Ornaments found in Harappa 




'^ s rE 

•E <Or. 911 ' * * 

Pictorial writing 


Occupation : 

In the Indus Valley there were 

agriculturists, artisans, traders, 

weavers, potters and blacksmiths. 

Agriculture was their main occupation. 

They cultivated wheat and barley. 

They stored the surplus grains in the 


1 . List out the various occupations in 
your area. 

2. Do we store grains? If yes, where 
and how? 

3. Gather evidences to prove that Indus 
Valley people traded by sea. 

Dresses : 

People wore cotton and woollen 
dresses. Men wore a garment similar to 
the 'dhoti' as lower garment and a shawl 
as upper garment. 


The statue of a dancing girl 
made out of bronze found in Mohenjo- 
daro and the statue of a man with beard 
made out of limestone are examples of 
the excellent sculptures. 


The articles excavated in 
Mohenjo-daro tell us about their 
religious principles and the love 
towards their religion. They worshipped 
Lord Shiva represented as Pasupathi, 
Mother Goddess, Lingam, Trident and 

They buried the dead in urns 
along with food and ornaments. 

Causes for the decline of the towns: 

1. Wooden articles would have got 
destroyed by fire. 

Ornaments : 

To make ornaments they used 
gold, silver, ivory, and precious stones. 
Poor people wore ornaments made out 
of shells and copper. Both men and 
women wore many ornaments. 

2. Rivalry because of the civil war. 

3. Natural calamities and the change in 
the course of River Indus would have 
buried things. 


They were experts in making 
pots out of terracotta. The figures of 
birds, animals, images of male and 
female, bullock cart driven by a man, 
pots and bowls were discovered. 

4.The Aryans would have destroyed 
these towns in order to succeed . 

S.The heap of bones discovered in 
Mohenjo-daro is evidence of the 
invasion of the foreigners. 



I. Choose the correct answer: 

1 . Which of these help you to know about Indus Valley Civilization? 

a. stone inscriptions b. archaeological evidences 
c. copperplates 

2. Mohenjo-daro means 

a. Garden city b. Portcity c. Mound of Dead 

3. Port Lothal of the Copper Stone Age is in 

a. Punjab b.Sindu c. Gujarat 

4. Harappan Civilization was 

a. Civilization of village b. Civilization of town c. Civilization of 

5. The metal unknown to Indus Valley people 

a. gold b. iron c. copper 

6. Harappa in Sindhi means 

a. Buried City b. City of Fort c. City of Rivers 

II. Fill in the blanks: 

1 . The main God of the Harappans was . 

2. The excavation of the Indus Valley Civilization was done in 

3. The Great Bath is situated at . 

4. was the writing used by the Indus Valley people. 

Match the following: 

1. Great Bath 

- pots 

2. Excavation 

- burnt clay 

3. Wheel 

- Ravi 

4. Terracotta 

- Mohenjo-daro 

5. Punjab 

- 1921 

IV. Answer the following: 

1 . List out the occupation of the Harappans. 

2. Write about the Great Bath. 

3. What are the causes for the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization? 

4. Explain the writings of the Indus Valley people. 


3. Ancient Tamil Nadu 

The land mass between the 
Himalayas and Cape Comorin is hailed 
as our Grand Old Country of Bharath by 
Bharathiyar in his "Ode to Child". 
(Pappa Pattu) Historians conclude that 
the land to the south of the Vindhyan 
Range is the most ancient in the world. 

In the southern state there are 
people who speak different languages 
like Tamil, Telugu,Kannada, Malayalam 
and Tulu. The people who live in the 
south of Tirupathi speakTamil. 

Bavanandhi Munnivar,the 
author of Nannool describes Tamil 
Nadu as follows. 

Venkata hills on the North, Cape 
Comorin on South and the land 
between these two is Tamil Nadu. 

During the British rule, most of 
the parts of south India was called 
'Madras Presidency'. After 
independence, the state which had 
Tamil as its language was separated. 
Arignar Anna, the then Chief Minister 
in 1 967 named the state as Tamil Nadu . 

The Tamil we speak can be 
appreciated as Senthamizh, 
Paeynthamizh and Muthamizh. The 
National poet Subramania Bharathiyar 

"Senthmizh naadenum poothinilae-inba 
Thean vandhu paayuthu kathinelae-yengal 
Thanthaiyar naadenum poothinilae-oru 
Sakthi pirakuthu mouchinilae." 

Tamil Nadu was ruled by the 
descendants of Chera, Chola and 
Pandya who were called Mooventhars 
during the ancient time. The southern 
part of south India was ruled by 
Pandyas, west by Cheras and north 

The Prehistoric Tamil Nadu : 

Before prehistoric period, the 
Indian Ocean on the south of Cape 
Comorin was a land mass. It was called 
as 'Kumari Kandam'. The river Fahruli 
ran on this land mass which was eight 
to ten times bigger than South India. 
There were wide ranges of mountains. 
It was said that the land had sufficient 
rain, dense forest, civilized people and 
efficient kingdom. That kingdom would 
have been the ancient Pandyan 


Three Sangams : 

The capital of Pandyas was 
Thenmadurai. Tamizhvalartha Thalai 
Sangam assembled there. The 
Pandyas ruled over the land with 
Kapadapuram as its capital. This place 
was left over after the tsunami in which 
Thenmadurai was taken away by the 
sea. In Kapadapuram the poets 
gathered and had the Second Sangam. 
That city also became a prey to tsunami 

Then the Pandyas ruled with 
Madurai as their capital. The last 
Sangam was held in Madurai Muthoor. 
It was known as Kudal as the Pandya 
kings patronized the poets and held 
research on Tamil. It was believed that 
the First, Second and Third Sangam 
helped in the development of literature 
and Tamil flourished under the 
leadership of Pandyan Kings. These 
Sangams would have been for a long 

The Continent Lemuria : 

The conditions were favourable 
for the growth of living organisms only 
at Cape Comorin which was 
submerged after the tsunami. Because 
of this the evolution of man would have 
taken place then. The language spoken 
by those people was the basic of Tamil 
language. The researchers believed 
that those were the ancient Tamilians. 
People who live on the southern part of 
the land mass are considered as the 

ancestors of the people of Cape 
Comorin. There was a big land mass 
connecting Africa and Australia, which 
was called Lemuria after the name of 
the monkey Lemur. 

It was believed that human 
beings evolved from the Lemurs. The 
language of the people was ancient 
Tamil. The land where their decendents 
lived was called Tamil Nadu. 

Historic period: 

The historic period of Tamil 
Nadu began from the Sangam age. 
Sangam age is the period during which 
the poets of the Third Sangam joined 
together and did research on Tamil. 
This period lasted for 400 years from 
BT 200 -AT 200. Some consider that it 
was between BT 300 -AT 300. 

Note : BT-AT was calculated based on 
the birth yearof Thiruvalluvar ie 31 B.C. 
According to the decision taken by 
Tamil scholars that time can be 
calculated considering that 
Thiruvalluvar was bom 31 years before 
Christ. This was accepted and 
announced by the Government of Tamil 

The Sangam literatures, what 
we got now are Ettuthogai and 
Pathupattu. The poem in these 
literature were written by Kapilar, 
Paranar, Awayyar, Nakkeerar, 


and hundreds of poets. With the help of 
these we can understand the 
civilization, customs, culture and 
political life of Tamilians. 

Tolkappium which was a pride to 
Tamil literature originated before the 
Third Sangam. Tamil literature would 
have developed a few thousand years 
ago. It was a pride to Tamil, that 
Tirukkural, which was hailed by all the 
religions originated during the Sangam 
age. The national poet Bharathiyar 

Valluvanthanai ulakinukaethanthu 
Vanpugaz konda Tamil Nadu" 

Our mother tongue Tamil which 
is adoptive to grammatical norms and 
is called Senthamizh. Scholars call 
Tamil a classical language, because it 
had developed without the help of other 

Central Government had 

announced Tamil as a classical 
language in 2004. From this we know 
the fame of Tamil. 

The people who lived in the 
south which was surrounded by water 
on three sides were good sea traders 
before the Sangam age as per the 
proverb, "Tiraikadal oodiyum 
thiraviyam theddu". The language 
Tamil is abundant with words like Navai, 
Kalam, Kappal, Thoni, Odam, Padagu, 
Theppam and Katamaram which are 
used to denote the mode of travel at 

This shows their interest in sea 
trade. There were many ports like 
Puhar, (Kaveripoompattinam), Korkai, 
Musiri, Thondi and Vanchi. They had 
trade contacts with Egypt, Yavanam, 
Rome, China and other eastern 
countries. They followed the barter 

Mohenjo-daro and Harappa 
excavated in the Northern hemisphere 
were examples of town civilization. 


Mohenjo-daro and Harappa 
excavated in the Northern hemisphere 
were examples of town civilization. 

They examined thousands of 
things. It was proved that it had 
connection with the Southern Tamilians 
for more than four-five thousand years 
ago. This showed that in those days 
Tamilians were not only in the south but 
also in the north. 

During the Sangam, the poets 
divided the lands into five physical 
divisions. The mountainous region was 
called Kurinchi, the forested region was 
referred as Mullai, the coastal area was 
Neidel and the sandy regions which 
suffered drought were called Palai. The 
occupation of the people depended on 
the region where they lived. 

The Three Tamil kingdoms 

The Pandyan king Mudathirumaran and 
Thalaiyalanganathu Cheruvendra 
Neduncheziyan who defeated the 
combined forces of seven kings, lived in 
the Pandya kingdom. The one who 
played an important role in 
Sillapathigaram by saying, "Yano 
Arrasan; Yanae Kalvan" (I am not a king, 
I am the culprit) and established truth was 
also a renowned Pandya king. 

In those days, the most 
important duty of the kings on those 
days was protecting their subjects. 
Apart from the kings there were 
chieftains and patrons who ruled 
smaller regions. Conditions were 
favourable for the poets, pannar, 
koothar, viraliyar, traders, idayars, 
uzhavars, maravars to lead a 
comfortable life. 

Agriculture was honored as it 
provided food to all. Next to agriculture 
weaving was given importance. 

The Cheras : 

"Uzhuthundu vazhvarae vazhvar matrellam 
Thozhuthundu pinselbavar." 

The famous, Chera kings 
Imayavaramban Neduncheralathan and 
Sillambu Pugazh Cheran Senguttuvan 
reached the Himalayas and hoisted the 
Chera llag. 


The Cholas 

The famous Chola kings were Karikal 
Peruvallathan and Killivalavan. 

Karikalan who ruled over two 
thousand years ago conquered Eelam. 
He made the captives build the bank of 
river Cauvery. Kallanai which exists 
even today was built by him. This 
famous king was called as Karikal 

The famous kings of the 
medieval period were Rajaraja Chola 
and Rajendra Chola. They conquered 
not only the North but also Java and 

The seven chieftains were 
called as Kadaiyelu Vallalgal. The 
famous among them were Pari, Ori, 
Kari, Nalli, Elini, PeganandAay. 

According to the Thirukkural 
mentioned above there was a society 
without any discrimination. 

There were discrimination 
according to their occupations. There 
was sect system but they were not 
discriminated according to their birth. 
Untouchability was not in practice. In 
due course, caste discrimination and 
untouchability came into force. 

Women had the privilege of 
choosing their life partners. Parents 
agreed to that. The rituals, raising of 
holy fire and chanting of mantras were 
not in vogue. Women were not treated 

As building of temples was not 
in practice, the Sangam people 
worshipped the stones erected in 
memory of the dead soldiers which 
were known as Hero Stones or 
Nadukkal and their ancestors. 

They celebrated harvest 
festival, Pongal festival and the festival 
of Spring season. In the capital they 
celebrated Indiravizha. They did not 
know about the festivals of the 

Social Life : 
"Plrrapokkum elfa uirukkum -chrrappova 
Cheithozhil vettmmai yan" 



I, Choose the correct answer : 

1 . The area that was considered as the most ancient one in the world 

a) Ganges Valley 

b) the area in the south of Vindhyas 

c) north west valley 

2. The land mass on the South Kanyakumari during pre-historic period 

a) Continent of Kumari 

b) Continent of Bharath 

c) Continent of Africa 

3. The place where evolution of man began 

a) Mediterranean countries 

b) Asyria 

c) Lemuria 

4. Which year is considered as the birth year of Thiruvalluvar 

a) AD 31 

b) BC 31 

5. The city where the Second Sangam was held 

a) Thenmadurai 

b) Kapadapuram 

c) Koodal Nagar 

II. Fill in the blanks: 

1 . was the organisation where the Tamil poets assembled and 

did the literary research in Tamil. 

2. The were the ancestors of the people of Cape Comorin. 

3. The historical period ofthe Tamil began from age. 

4. The Grammar book, originated before the Third Sangam. 

5. ^was the most important occupation ofthe Sangam age. 


Match the following: 

1. Tolkappiam 

- Yano Arrasan;YanaeKalvan 

2. Mullai 

- Hero Stones 

3. PandiyarNeduncheziyan 

- Ravi 

4. Heroic death 

- coastal area 

5. Kurinchi 

- book before Tamil Sangam 

6. Neithel 

- forest area 

IV, Answer the following: 

1 . Why is Tamil known as classical language? 

2. Name the Tamil words which are used to denote the mode of travel at sea, 

3. Why is Madurai known as Kudal? 

4. What are the countries with whom the Tamilians had trade? 

5. Mention the physical divisions of the land during the Sangam age. 

6. Name the famous Pandya kings. 

7. Name the important Chera kings. 

8. Write notes on Karikal Peruvallathan. 

9. Name the Kadaiyelu Vallalgal. 

10. Mention the social status of women during the Sangam age. 

V. Answer in detail: 

1 . Write the characteristic features of the ancient Tamil. 

2. Describe the First, Second and Third Sangam. 

3. Write about the sea trade of the Sangam Age. 


The Aryans migrated to India 
through the Khyber and Bolan passes 
from central Asia. Being shepherds, 
they moved in search of pastures for 
their cattle. They entered about 4000 
years ago and settled in the entire north 

The places where they settled in 
India was called AryaVardham. Aryans 
made their livelihood by herding the 
cattle. They compiled the prayers of 
their ancestors as Vedas. In History, 
this was called the Vedic Age. The 
Vedic Age was classified into two. They 
were Early Vedic Age and Later Vedic 

Early Vedic Age or Age of Rig Veda: 
(BC 1 500 -BC 1000) 

When Rig Veda was compiled the 
Aryans lived in Sindu, which is now in 
Pakistan. They settled in Sabta Sindhu 
(The Land of Seven Rivers) in Punjab. 
We come to know through the Rig 
Veda, the political and social conditions 
of the Aryans. 

The Social life of Aryans 
Family -^Village -^Vis ->Jana -^Janapatha 

Routes of the Aryans 

Routes of the Aryans 


Political Life 

Social Life: 

The basic unit of the society was 
family. Many families joined and formed 
the village which was headed by the 
Grahmini. Many villages formed Visu. 
(Vis) Vishwapathy was the head of the 
Visu. The next higher administrative 
unit was Jana. The head of Jana was 
Rajan (King).The one who had valour 
and strength became the Rajan. The 
people lived in the kingdom were the 
Prajas. The king was called Prajapathi. 
Kingship became hereditary. Many 
chieftains formed the Mahajanapadas. 


Do you have a family name? 

Ask and find out the family names of your 


Which God/Goddess do you worship? 

The Raja (King) was assisted in 
his administration by officials called 
Prohit and Senai (Commander). There 
were two Assemblies called Saba and 

Saba -Group of Elders 

Samiti - Representatives of People 

Duties of Raja (King): 

He protected his lands from different 


He conducted religious duties 

according to the advise of the prohits. 

He protected his people from poverty, 
war and enmity. 

During the war he led the people and 
fought with the enemies. 

Justice and punishments were given 
after trial. 

He extended and strengthened the 

The father was the head of the 
family. In the beginning women were on 
par with men in the field of education 
and religion. There were women 
poetess like Vishwawara, Abala, Kosa, 
and Lobamuthra. Caste system was not 
in existence. Monogamy and Polygamy 
were in practice. Widows' remarriage 
was permitted. 

Economic Life: 

Cattle rearing and agriculture 
were the main occupations of the 
people during Rig Vedic Age. Iron was 
used to make tools and instruments. 
With the help of these tools they 
destroyed the forests and made them 
into cultivable lands. Carpentry and 
weaving were also their occupations. 

They produced cotton and 
woollen clothes. Goldsmiths made 
ornaments and potters made pots for 
household use. Barter system was in 
practice. Rivers were used for 
transportation. Their unit of currency 
Nishka,was made out of gold. 

Mention the origin and growth of the 

Carpentry, blacksmith, goldsmith, 
weaving, agriculture, cattle rearing and 
making weapons. 



They had wheat, barley, milk, 
curd, ghee, vegetables, fruits and meat 
as their food. They drank intoxicating 
drinks like 'Soma' and 'Sura'. 

Dresses and ornaments: 

The Aryans used clothes made 
of cotton and wool. Men wore dhoti and 
shawl. They also wore turbans. Women 
wore upper garments and lower 
garments. Both men and women wore 
ornaments. They wore earrings, 
necklaces, bangles, anklets and wore 
bands on theirforeheads. 


The Aryans worshipped the 
forces of nature such as Sun, fire, air, 
sky and trees. They also worshipped 
Indira, Varna, Agni and Yaman. There 
was neither temple nor idol worship in 
the early vedic age. Religious sacrifices 
were practised. They wrote religious 
principles and their explanations. They 
offered milk, ghee, grains and silk. 
Yagas like Ashvamedha, Rajasuya and 
Vajapaya were conducted during 

Later Vedic Period: (BC 1000-BC 600) 
The period of Sama Veda, 
Atharvana Veda, Yajur Veda are called 
the Later Vedic Period after the Rig 
Vedic Period. In this period the Aryans 
spread over the eastern side. (Pre Vedic 
Aryans spread from Kabul to Upper 
Ganges) During this period the 
kingdoms emerged. The ideas and 
explanations of Brahmanas, 
Upanishads and Aranyakas were 

Political Life: 

The important administrative 
region was the Indus Valley. Kingdoms 
like Kosala, Videham, Kuru, Magadha, 
Kasi, Avanthi and Panchala emerged. 
Kingship became hereditary. The duty 
of the king was to defend his country 
from enemies and to maintain law and 
order. Since the kingdom expanded, he 
had more responsibility. Sacrifices 
such as Rajasuya and Ashvamedha 
were performed to establish his 
undisputed authority. Saba and 
Samithi declined. 

Economic Life: 

The widely used metal was iron. 
Handicrafts improved because of this. 
New tools were made. They grew 
paddy, sugarcane, barley and wheat 
Cow dung was used as manure. Cattle 
wealth developed. According to the 
number of cattle one had, his economic 
status was estimated. 

Broken pots of the 
Aryan Period 


There were weavers, tanners, 
carpenters and goldsmith. Gold and 
silver coins like Nishka, Swarna and 
Satamana were in use. 

Caste system became rigid 
which was called Varna Dharma. Those 
who performed sacrifices and religious 
ceremonies were called Brahmanas. 
Those who wagged war to protect and 
rule the country were known as 
Kshatriyas. The Vaishyas were the 
traders and farmers. The people who 
served the three upper caste and did all 
the menial works were called Sudras. 

Status of Women: 

During the Later Vedic Period 
there was no improvement in the status 
of the women. They were subordinate 
to men. They did not inherit property. 
They were deprived of administrative 
power. Child marriage was prevalent. 
Women who belonged to the royal 
family enjoyed some privileges. Sati, 
according to which the widow would 
throw herself into the funeral pyre of her 
husband was in practice. 


According to the Aryan Dharma, 
the Brahmin students stayed in the 
Gurukul (house of the teacher) and 
learnt. There were highly educated 
women like Gargi and Maitreyi. In the 
Gurukul, they learnt philosophy, logic, 
religion, grammar, astrology, medicine, 
discipline, mathematics, Vedas, and 
Upanishads. The royal children alone 
were taught Danur Veda (military 


There were a lot of changes in 
the religion according to the Varna 
Dharma of the Brahmins. The pre- 
vedic Gods lost their importance. In 
this period, Brahma, Vishnu, Rudra 
(Siva) gained importance. Rituals and 
animal sacrifices gained importance. 
People believed on soul, fate and 
moksha. By the end of this period there 
was opposition for the rule of the 
priests, rituals and sacrifices. Against 
these meaningless rituals and costly 
sacrifices. Buddhism and Jainism 


Qualities of Dravidians and Aryans 


Qualities of Dravidians 

Qualities of Aryans 


Dark complexion, medium height, dark 
long hair. 

Fair, tall and brown hair. 


Main occupation-Trade and agriculture. 

Main occupation-Cattle rearing 
and war. 


Wore cotton clothes. 

Wore woollen, cotton and dresses 
made out of skin of animals. 


Important animal bull. 
They worshipped bull. 

Important animal cow. 
They worshipped cow. 


Built houses out of burnt bricks. 

Built houses out of bamboo and 


Worshipped idols, lingam, trident, sakthi 
and snake. 

No idol worship and temples. 
Worshipped nature and 
performed yagas and rituals. 


Used copper. They did not know the use 
of iron. 

Used iron. 


Tiger was known. Horse was unknown. 

Tiger was unknown. Used 


Agricultural civilization, towns. 

Cattle rearing civilization, 


I . Choose the correct answer: 

1 . The period of Rig Veda 

a. BC 1 600-BC 1 000 b.BC 1 000 - BC 600 c. BC1 500-BC 1 000 

2. The unit of currency used during Rig Vedic period 

a. Nishka b. Rupee c. Dollar 

3. The woman who excelled in education in the Later Vedic Period. 

a.Gargi b.Abella c. Kosa 



II. Fitlin the blanks: 

1) The head of the village was 

2) Widows' was in practice during the Early Vedic Period. 

3) Assembly that consisted of the Representatives of People was 

4) According to , the widow would throw herself into the funeral 

pyre of her husband. 

III. True or False: 

1 . Sabta Sindu is called the 'Land of Seven Rivers'. 

2. The commander- in- chief was the Senai. 

3. Widows' remarriage was not allowed in Rig Vedic Age. 

4. The basic unit of the society was family. 

5. Tiger was unknown to the Dravidians. 

IV. Match the following : 

I.Satamana - Shiva 

2. Praja - Rajan 

3. Rudra - Vishwapathy 

4. HeadofJana - coins 

5. HeadofVisu - people of the kingdom 

V. Answer the following: 

1 ) List out the ornaments of the Rig Vedic people. 

2) What did the Brahmin students learn during the Later Vedic Period? 

3) Compare and contrast the qualities of the Aryan and the Dravidian 



The 6^ century was a period of 
intellectual awakening. During that 
period Jainism and Buddhism arose in 
India. These two religions existed to 
reform the socio-religious 
organizations. The aim of these 
religions is to remove the superstitious 
beliefs, unwanted religious rituals and 
the caste discrimination. Vardhamana 
Mahavira was the founder of Jainism. 
Gautama Buddha was the founder of 


In Jainism, 24 Thirthangaras 
were worshipped. The first 
Thirthangara was Adhinathar, who was 
known as Rishabadevar. Vardhamana 
Mahavira is the last Thirthangara. 
(24*^) He gave a strong formation to 

"Jina" which means the "Conqueror". 
People also called him as "Mahavira". 
Mahavira went to many places 
preaching his principles for 30 years. 


Vardhamana Mahavira lived 
during B.C.534 - B.C.462. He was born 
in Kundagramam near Vaishali Nagar, 
which is now in Bihar. His father was 
Siddhartha and mother was Trisala. 
His wife was Yasodha and he had a 
daughter called Anoja Priyadharshana. 
At the age of 30, he gave up all the 
worldly pleasures and became an 
ascetic. He performed penance for 12 
years, seeking answer for the problems 
during these days. He treated both joy 
and sorrow equally. He won in his 
search for truth. So he was called 

Why are people born? Why do 
they die? What are the causes for their 
sufferings? - These were the important 
questions that arose in him. He started 
thinking why people are troubling 
others and cheating each other. One 
set of people said that it was because of 
the sin they did in the previous birth. But 
Mahavira never accepted this. He 
thought that how people could not 
commitsin in this birth. 


So he said that one should not 
harm others. Human beings are 
responsible for their own problems. We 
should not harm any living things. He 
preached a restricted life. He asked his 
followers to follow his principles of 
'Ahimsa' or 'Non-Violence'. To attain the 
spiritual goal the Jains starved and 
subject themselves to all bodily 

Jainism stressed that no one should kill 
any living creatures. They eliminated 
clothes. It insisted that they should not 
wage war or do agriculture. Trade and 
commerce was their occupation. The 
religion preached that they should lead 
a restricted life. 

Three Gems or Triratna: 

Right Knowledge 

Right Belief 

Right Action 

The Five Doctrines 

1. Ahimsa (Non-Violence) 

2. Satya(Truth) 

3. Asatya(Non Stealing) 

4. Aparigraha(Non-possession) 

5. Brahmacharya(Celibacy) 

His principles spread far and wide 
when superstitious beliefs, quarrels and 
fightings prevailed. 

Kings who followed Jainism: 
Chandragupta Maurya 
Kalingathu Karavelen 
Koon Pandian 
Mahendravarma Pallava I 

Contributionof Jains to Tamil Literature: 

The Jains contributed Epics 
such as Sillapathigaram, 
Chivagachinthamani, Vallayapathi, 
Chullamani, literature such as 
Yapperungalaviruthi, Neminatham, 
Nannool, Agappoailvillakam, 
Tamilnigandu and religious literature 
such as Nalladiyar, Nanmanikadikai, 
Pazhamozhi, Thinaimalai 
Noorthiyampathu to Tamil literature. 

Contribution of Jains to architecture: 
Rajasthan - Dilwara temple at 
Mount Abu. 

Kajiraho - Chittoor, Ranakpur - 
Temples of Jains. 


^ ? 


P ^ J| 



r^. xJ 


Kollaan pulaalai marutthaanai kaikoopi 
Ella uyirumthozhum" 

- Thirukkural 



• Udaiyagiri 

• Hathigumpa 

• Girnar 

• Saravanabelagola 

• Kazhugumalai 

The statue of Gomatheswara at 
Saravanabelgola is at Karnataka. 



Gautama Buddha was the 
founder of Buddhism. His original name 
was Siddhartha. He lived during 563 
B.C.- 483 B.C. He was born at 
Kapllavastu in Nepal. His father 
Siddhodana beionged to the Salcya 
dynasty. His mother, iVIayadevi died at 
the seventh day of his birth, so he was 
brought up by his step-mother. He got 
married at the age of 16. His wife was 
Yasodha and Rahul was his son. 

Even at his early age, he was 
anxious to know about what was 
happening in the worid. He never 
showed any interest in hunting and 
iuxury. The miseries and poverty of the 
poor peopie affected him very much. 


He was disturbed by the iuxury 
on one side, poverty, sickness and old 
age on the other side. He disowned his 
parents, wife and son. He went to the 
forest and meditated. He controlled his 

hunger and thirst. But he never got the 
answer for the question. Since he could 
not get an answer, he stopped torturing 
himself and ate food. To find out the 
truth, he started thinking. He was 

' Siddhartha, who was 
enlightened under a pipal tree at Gaya 
became Buddha. 

W The meaning of the word 
'Buddha' is a person who knows what is 
good, what is bad and what is 

He delivered his first sermon at 
the Deer Park in Samath near Banares 
at Uttar Pradesh. 

Principles of Buddha: 

Life is full of miseries. The reasons 
for the sufferings are not because of fate 
orthe deeds of our previous birth. There 
are other reasons for sonrows. We 
should strive to overcome the sorrows 
by not being greedy, not telling lies and 
not harming others. To avoid miseries 
one should have right thinking, right 
speech and right livelihood. He opposed 
caste discrimination. Man need not have 
any fear for God, soul and fate. One 
should depend and live on his own Ideas 
and knowledge. We should show 
compassion towards animals, birds and 
human beings. 


Buddha's principles on suffering 
are the Four Noble Truths and the 
principles on conduct are the 'Eight 
Fold Paths'. 

The Four Noble Truths are; 
ILife is full of sorrow. 

2. Desire is the cause of sorrow. 

3. Sorrow can be ended by giving up desire. 

4. The eight fold path is the way to 
end sorrow. 

Many kings followed Buddhism 
like Jainism. The most important among 
them was King Ashoka. Jainism and 
Buddhism were at their zenith till the 6*^ 
century. They started to decline when 
Hinduism regained its earlier position. 
Buddhism split into Hinayana and 

Eight - Fold Paths to overcome desire: 

^ Right belief ^ Right effort 

^ Right speech ^ Right thought 

v^ Right living ^ Right action 

v^ Right memory ^ Right meditation 

In order to spread the truth he ^ 
went from place to place. Wherever he 
went, he discussed his ideas with 
various groups of people. Buddhist 
monks came forward to spread the 
principles of Buddha. The organization 
of the monks was called as 'Sangam'. 

The agriculturists, poor people, 
women, menial labourers and those 
who were affected by the society 
accepted the principles of Buddha. The 
idea that all are equal was new to them. 
So Buddhism spread far and wide. 

f Hinayana 

Mahayana ^ 

Accepted Buddha's 

No idol worship. 

Worshipped Buddha 
as God. 

Idol worship 


Art and Architecture 

Sancht Stupa 

Even today Buddhism is followed in Ceylon, Burma, Tibet, China, 

Japan and Thailand. 
The kings who followed Bhuddism -Ashoka, Kanishka and Harsha, 


To know: 

• Our National Emblem (The figure 
of four lions) is taken from the 
capital of Ashoka Pillar. 

• The Chakra in our National Flag 
which has 24 spokes is taken 
from the 'Dharma Chakra' of the 
Ashoka Pillar. 

• Bihar is the place where there are 
many Buddha Viharas. 

Historical Monuments: 

• The Jataka tales describes the 
history of Buddhism. The Jataka 
stories are depicted at Gaya, 
Sanchi and Burcut. 

• Ajantha and Ellora Cave 
paintings which are in 
Aurangabad at Maharastra 
describe the fame of Buddha. 
Gandhara art also belongs to 

• The prayer halls of the Buddhist 
monks are called Chaityas and 
their monastries are called 
Viharas. They are of rock cut 


• The Buddhist religious texts are 
called Tripitakas. They are 
Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka and 
Abhidamma Pitaka. 

• Manimekalai and Kundalakesi 
are Buddhist literature. 

The books written by Jain monks. 

• Slllapathlkaram, Nannool 

• Chivagacinthamani; Vallayapathi 

• Religious text: Angas and Purvas , 

To know: 

Mahavamsam, a book of Sri Lanka 
says that Tripitakas was written during 
the reign of Vattakkamini Abayan. In Pali 
language it is called as Tripitakam which 
means three baskets. 

Water cannot enter into a well 
constructed house; 
Evil thoughts cannot enter into the 
hearts of those who have 
good thoughts. 



L Choose the correct answer: 

1 . The one who laid strong foundation to Jainism 

a) Vardhamana Mahavira b) Athinathan c) Rishabadeva 

2. The principles stressed by Jainism 

a) idol worship b) not to kill c) untouchability 



3. A place in Tamil Nadu where you can see Jain sculptures 

a) Girnar b) Kazhugumalai c) Hathigumba 

4. The place where Buddha was enlightened 

a) Kundagrammam b) Deer Park c)Gaya 

5. One ofthe most important kings who followed Buddhism 

a) Chandra Gupta b) Ashoka c) Bindusara 

II. Fill in the blanks: 

was known as Conqueror or Jina. 

The principles stressed by Jainism are called 

is the place where Gomatheswara statue is situated 

The principles of Buddha are called . 

The organization of the Buddhist monks is called 

The Dharma Chakra in our National Flag is taken from the 

III. True or false : 

1 . Mysore is the place where Gomatheswara statue is situated. 

2. The son of Buddha was Rahul. 

3. The founder of Jainism was Buddha. 

4. Mahavira was the 24^ Thirthankara. 

5. There are 24 spokes in the Ashoka Chakra. 

IV. Match the following; 

1 . Tripitakam 

2. Hinayana 

3. Sillapathigaram 

4. Deer Park 

5. Mahayana 

worshipped Buddha as God 

Buddha's first sermon 

who accepted Buddha's prinicples 

Jain literature 

religious text of Jains 

V. Answer in five lines: 

1 . What are the causes for the rise of Jainism and Buddhism? 

2. Describe the Triratnas insisted on by Jainism. 

3. Write short notes on the contribution of Jains to Tamil literature. 

4. Write the Four Noble Truths of Buddha. 

5. Mention the Eight Fold Paths to overcome desire. 

VI. Answer in detail: 

1 . Explain the distinctive features of Jainism. 

2. Explain the ideas you like in Buddhism. 




At the end of the Vedic period, the 
Janapadas fought with each other for 
the new fertile lands and mineral wealth 
and for the same reason they tried to 
move towards the east. Because of 
this, they had clashes with the non- 
Aryans who came from the east and 
south of the Indus Valley. Ultimately, the 
small Janapadas either defeated or 
joined themselves with the 

Many Janapadas joined to form 
the Mahajanapadas. They depended 
more on the types of lands than on the 
clans. There are sources to prove that 
during the period of Buddha there were 
16 powerful Mahajanapadas in North 
India. Some of them were ruled by 
hereditary kings. The rest were ruled by 
elected kings. There were 18 groups 
together in the Vajjian confederacy 
which had Vaishali as their capital. 
Kosala, Avanti, Vatsa and Magadha 
were some of the powerful monarchies 
of this period. They fought with each 
other and other republics.Ultimately, 
Magadha defeated others and 
became the most powerful 

1. Anga 


7. Kedi 

13. Aswakas 

2. Magadha 8. Vatsa 14. Avanti 

3. Kosala 9. Kuru 15. Gandhara 

4. Kasi 10. Panchala 16. Kamboja 

5. Vajji 11. Matsya 

6. Malla 12. Surasena 

Rise of Magadha : 

Bimbisara - Ajatasatru 

The area around Patna in 
today's Bihar is called Magadha. It's 
first capital was Siravasthi, the second 
capital was Rajgir and lastly 
Pataliputra. Bimbisara belonged to 
Haryanka Dynasty. He expanded the 
kingdom of Magadha by conquests and 
by marriage alliances. His son 
Ajatasatru imprisoned his father and 
succeeded the throne. He wagged war 
for a long period with Kosala, Avanti, 
Vaishali and extended his empire. The 
fort of Pataliputra was laid by 

Sisun aga - Mahapadma Nanda 

Sisunaga defeated the Haryanka 
Dynasty. The Nanda Dynasty who 
succeeded Sisunga Dynasty spread 
the rule of Magadha throughout north 
India. Mahapadmananda, the first 
Nanda king crossed the Vindhyas and 
annexed Deccan. He extended the 
Magadha Empire beyond Vindhyas to 


Though Sisunaga and 
Mahapadmananda, were Sudras they 
became the kings. It was a great 
change. The Nandas patronized 
Jainism.The IVIacedonian king 
Alexander came with his troops 
through the West of India. He had to 
return since he was aware of the Nanda 
warfare and his soldiers were tired after 
a long journey. 


Chandragupta Maurya : 

Chandragupta of Mauryan 
Dynasty revolted against the last 
Nanda king Dhanananda, defeated him 
and took over the Magadha Dynasty 
(BC 324-299). 

He invaded parts of West India 
which were annexed by the Greeks 
under the leadership of Alexander and 
extended the Mauryan Dynasty. He 
defeated the Greek General Selecus 
Nikator and he annexed Afghanistan 
and Gandnara with his empire. 

Megasthenese.the ambassador 
of Selecus stayed at Pataliputra for 
many years and wrote about India in his 
book 'Indica'. The Jain religious text 
says that Chandragupta Maurya 
became a monk leaving his throne and 
went with the Jain monk, Bhadrabagu 
to south India. He ended his life by fast 
unto death as a devout follower of 
Jainism at Saravanabelagola. 


Chandragupta Maurya 


Chandragupta was succeeded 
by his son Bindusara, who ruled for 25 
years. He was succeeded by one of his 
sonsAshoka. (BC 273-236) For the first 
four years, he spent his time to 
suppress his brothers who were his 
rivals. After the eighth year, he waged a 
terrible war against Kalinga which was 
separated and annexed with the 
Mauryan empire. Ashoka was so upset 
and grief stricken at the sight of the war 
that he took a pledge that he would 
neverwage war again. 


Ashoka's DharmaVijaya: 

Ashoka and Buddhism: 

Ashoka declared that helping 
his subjects and leading them in the 
righteous way is the duty of a king. He 
spent the rest of his life, meeting people 
and helping them. He hated 'Dig Vijaya' 
(Conquest of the World). In order to 
spread Dharma, he undertook a 
journey which was called 'Dharma 
Vijaya'. He constructed inns and 
hospitals for everyone irrespective of 
caste and creed. Medical assistance 
was given to cattle. Sacrifices were 
banned. The laws were altered on 
humanitarian basis. Death sentence 
was reduced. He spread Dharma 
among people through rock edicts 
which were inscribed on regional 
languages. He appointed 
Dharmamahamatras to help the 
people. Ashoka was the first emperor 
who established the welfare state for 

Ashoka embraced Buddhism 
which insisted love, knowledge and 
discipline. Eventhough he was a 
Buddhist, he was kind to Brahmins and 
Agivagirs. He took maximum effort to 
spread Buddhism. He renovated and 
expanded the monuments at 
Kapillavastu, Saranath and 
Buddhagaya.He constructed hundreds 
of stupas and pillars. He organized the 
Third Buddhist Council at Pataliputra. 
In order to spread Buddhism, he sent 
Buddhist monks to different parts of his 
empire and also to foreign countries. 
Mahendra, the one who spread 
Buddhism in Ceylon was believed to be 
his son. Buddhism became a world 
religion by the efforts of Ashoka. 

Ashoka's contribution to art and 
architecture : 

Ashoka's stupas and pillars are 
considered to be the oldest after the 
monuments of the Indus Valley 
Civilization. Buddhist stupas at Sarnath 
and Lumbini are marvellous. The 
Ashoka's pillar cannot be compared 
with any other art. The structure of 
Ashoka's pillar, the bell shaped capital 
resembling an inverted lotus shows the 
influence of the Persian architecture. 


Sarnath Pillar 


Ashoka's Stone Edicts: 

Mauryan Administration: 

Ashoka's royal proclamations 
and messages are inscribed on the 
walls of the caves, stone pillars and 
rocks that are kept all through his 
empire. Most of them are written in 
Prakrit, Kharoshti in north western 
India, Greek in Afghanistan. These 
edicts depict Ashoka's humanitarian 
love and non-violence. 



F^JT^f ^Ashoka's 

Stone Edict 

A : " 

The Stone Edict of Ashoka: 

"I captured Kalinga after eight 
years of war. In the war, one lakh 
people died and one and a half lakh 
people left the country. 

It made me very sad when more 
than a lakh of my people were killed 
and captured during the war of 
Janapata. The war separated loved 

The ruins of the war affected all 
the people. It troubled me. So I 
accepted Dharma more than war." 


For the convenience of 
administration, the empire was divided 
into five provinces.Taxilla was the 
capital of North province, Ujjan was the 
capital of West province, Swarnagiri 
was the capital of South province and 
Dosali was the capital of East province. 
The main province, Magadha was ruled 
by the king himself with Pataliputra as 
its capital. 

A council of ministers and army 
chiefs were appointed to help the king 
in his administration. They were 
appointed without the discrimination of 
caste. The higher officials called 
Mahamatras were appointed as 
superintendents and governors of the 
big provinces. Princes were also 
appointed as Mahamatras. There were 
other officers like Yuktas, Pradeshikas, 
Ambassdors and Spies. Those who 
protected the frontier were known as 
'Andamahamatras'. Dharma 
mahamatras looked after the moral life 
of the public. There were local self 
government in the cities. 
Megasthenese described in his Indica 
that the administration of the city of 
Pataliputra was maintained by a set of 
30 officers who belonged to 6 
committees. Each committee had a 
specific duty. The strong army of 
Mauryas was administered by a set of 
30 officers. Infantry, cavalry, elephants, 
chariots and navy were controlled by 5 
committees. The sixth committee 
looked after the transport, food, 
medical facility and production of 
weapons for the army. 


The Mauryan Empire 
during Ashoka's period 

6>^ o 
^ (? 


\ ^athyaputra ] 
\ I Kanchy 



I I The Mauryan Empire during Ashdka's period 



The judicial administration was 
very strict. Asiioka brought some 
changes on humanitarian grounds. 
Torture was banned. He introduced 
new methods to console the people 
who were given death sentence. The 
tenure of petty cases were reduced. 

Kings and ministers went on tours to 
solve the problems of the people. 

Brihadratha, the last king of the 
Maurya Dynasty was assassinated by 
Pushyamitra. After this, the Magadha 
lost its power for more than 500 years. 


L Choose the correct answer: 

1 . The one who built fort Pataliputra 

a. Ashoka b. Bimbisara 

2. The book written by Megasthenese 

a. Arthasasthra b. Indica 

3. Ashoka ascended the throne in 

a. BC232 b. BC273 

c. Ajathasatra 

c. Mudra-rakshasa 

c. BC255 

4. The place where the Third Buddhist Council was held 

a. Pataliputra b. Kashmir c. Kapilavastu 

II True or false: 

1 . Selecus Nikator was the ambassador of Megasthenese. 

2. Mahapadmananda was the first king of Nanda Dynasty. 

3. Ashoka refused Dharma Vijaya and accepted Dig Vijaya. 

4. Ashoka was the first one to establish a welfare state for people. 

5. Mahendra spread Buddhism at Ceylon. 
III. Answer the following: 

1 . How did the Mahajanapadas establish themselves? 

2. To whom does the credit go in establishing the first empire in India? - Explain, 

3. Ashoka was the one who established an empire for the welfare of the people- 

4. What are the causes for the change in Ashoka's life? 

5. Explain the inscriptions used in the stone edicts of Ashoka. 



The powerful empire which was 
established in India after the decline of 
the Mauryans were the Kushans. The 
Kushans were the people who 
belonged to the Yueh-chi tribe. During 
the 1'^ century AD Kadphises I 
established the kingdom of Kushana in 
the North west part of India. Kadphises 
II (AD 65-75) who succeeded 
Kadphises I conquered Punjab and 
Indus Valley. 


After the death of Kadphises II, 
Kanishka (AD 78-101) captured the 
throne. He was considered as the most 
powerful king of Kushans. He marched 
to Pataliputra and subdued Saka 
Satraps. He fought with the Chinese 
twice. He was defeated by the Chinese 
commander-in-chief Panchao in the 
first expedition. In the second war, he 
won and annexed Kashgar, Yarqand, 
Khotan and the parts of central Asia 
with his Empire. He created a new 
capital called Purushapuram. 

He was impressed by 
Buddhism. He organized the Fourth 
Buddhist Council at Kashmir. The 
famous Buddhist philosophers like 
Vasupandu, Ashvaghosa and 
Nagarjuna participated in the Fourth 
Buddhist Council. 

The new division of Buddhism, 
Mahayana originated in this council. 
Groups of monks were sent to Ti bet and 
China to spread Mahayana. 

Ashvaghosha, who was the 
Mahayana Buddhist scholar wrote 
large volumes of Sanskrit literature like 
Buddhacharita, Sutra lankar. 
Vasumithra compiled Mahavibhasa. 
Nagarjuna wrote books on philosophy. 
Charaka, a famous physician and the 
great builder Ajilasim were in 
Kanishka's Empire. 

The Gandhara art which 
combined the Indo-Greek style made 
new statues of Buddha and 
Bodhisatvas. Kanishka was called 
Asoka II because of the involvement 
and the steps he took for the spread of 
Buddhism. The year that Kanishka 
ascended the throne was the beginning 
ofthe Saka era. He met a violent death 
in his tent. Thus the Kushan Empire 



After the Kushans the next empire 
to arise in north India was that of the 
Guptas with Pataliputra as it's capital. 
Chandragupta I was the first important 
l^ing of the Gupta dynasty(AD3 19-335). 
The year of his coronation was 
considered as the beginning of the 
Gupta Era. The Allahabad inscription 
describes the conquests and the 
victories of Samudragupta (AD 335- 
375) who succeeded Chandragupta I. 
The Gupta empire extended from 
Bengal to Indus and the Himalayas to 
Vindhyas. The Allahabad inscription 
describes that he conquered 9 North 
Indian kings, 11 Republicans and 12 
South Indian kings. The Allahabad pillar 
inscription was inscribed by his minister 
Harisena. After Samudra Gupta, 
Chandragupta II (AD 380 - 414) was 
considered as a famous king. 

He defeated Sakas, the foreign 
invaders and captured Ujjain. 

The epics like Ramayana, 
Mahabharatha, 18 Puranas and 
Panchathanthiras were compiled during 
Gupta's period. They patronized Sanskrit 
scholars like Kalidasa, Pasar and 
Visagathatha. Sanskrit was the official 
language. They built small temples for 
Gods and Goddess like Vishnu, Shiva 
and Durga. The Ajanta cave paintings 
and sculptures belonged to the Gupta 

The famous astrologer and 
mathematician, Aryabhatta, 
Varahamihira, the famous physicians 
Saragar, Susurudar and Dhanvantari 
belonged to the Gupta age. The iron 
pillar at Mehrauli which is 1500 years 
old is a specimen of the art of 
metallurgy that flourished during the 
Gupta age. Nalanda University was 
founded by Kumara Gupta. Caste 
system was worse. The sachfices 
which were banned during the period of 
Ashoka revived. They worshipped 
Shiva, Sakthi, Vishnu, Kumaran 
(Murugan) and temples were built for 
Hindu Gods. 

Gupta period was considered 
the Golden Age. The Gupta empire 
declined because of the invasion of 
Pushyamithra and Huns. The Chinese 
traveller Fahien visited the Buddhist 
pilgrim centres during the period of 
Chandragupta II. (Vikramaditya) 

-.1 is-ai jnmvi" - 

Mehrauli Iron Pillar 


Harsh a 

Harshavardhana, the King of 
Thaneshwar created an empire in north 
India which was already defeated by 
the Huns after the downfall of the 
Guptas. (AD 606 - 647) Marsha fought 
for a long time with Sasanka, the one 
who killed his brother. In this war, the 
king of Kamarubha, (Assam) 
Bhaskaravarma helped him. After the 
death of Sasanka, he annexed most of 
the parts of the kingdom of Bengal. As 
per his sister's request, he became the 
king of Kanauj, which became his 
capital. He conquered Malwa, Sind 
and Orissa. He also tried to conquer 
south India which was a failure 
because Pulikesin II defeated Harsha. 

Because of the influence of his 
sister and Hieun Tsang, the Chinese 
scholar, Harsha embraced Buddhism. 
He held religious councils at Kanauj 
and Prayag. In this, most of the 
Buddhist and other religious scholars 
participated. At the end of the council, 
he generously distributed all his wealth 

htatanda UnlversFty 

to the monks, scholars and public. The 
Nalanda University was the great seat 
of learning which came to limelight 
under Harsha's patronage. It attracted 
not only Indians but also foreigners. 

Harsha went on frequent tours 
to find out the problems and fulfil the 
needs of his subjects during his 
administration. He patronized art and 
architecture. His minister Bana was a 
Sanskrit scholar. 


Arabian Sea 

Bay of Bengal 

Extent of Harsha's Empim 

Fndtan Doean 



He wrote the book called Si-Yu-Ki, a book on tours tells about 

'Harshacharita" Harsha who was a Buddhism and about India on those 

scholar wrote Nagananda, Ratnavali 

and Priyadarshika, The Chinese days. Marsha's Empire was the last 

Buddhist monk Hieun Tsang visited Empire in north India before the Islamic 
India during his reign. He visited Kanauj, conquest 
Prayag, Nalandaand Kanchipuram. He 
stayed in Harsha's court for sometimes. 


I. Fill in the blanks: 

1 . established the Kushana Dynasty. 

2. The book Buddha Charita was written by . 

3. was the physician of the Gupta period. 

4. was the king of Thaneshwar. 

5. The period of Gupta was called the of India. 

II. True or false: 

1. Peshawar was the capital of Kanishka. 

2. Si-yu-ki was written by Hieun Tsang. 

3. Ajilasim was the Greek architect. 

4. Mehruali pillar belongs to the age of the Guptas. 

5. Ashvaghosha wrote Sutralankar. 

IIL Match the following: 

1 . Fourth Buddhist Council - estabilished Kushan Empire 

2. Samudra Gupta's period - Kumara Gupta 

3. Kanishka's period - Kanishka 

4. Pannar -Yueh-Chi tribe 

5. Harsha -AD 335 -AD 375 

6. Kushan -AD 78 -AD 101 

7. Ashoka II - Harshacharita 

8. Nalanda University -Kashmir 

9. KadphisesI - Priyadharshika 

IV, Answer the following : 

1. Explain the background of Gandhara art. 

2. Why Gupta's period is known as the 'Golden Age' of India? 

3. Mention the foreign invaders who were responsible for the decline of 

4. Explain -Saka period and Gupta period. 

5. Discuss about Fahien and Hieun Tsang.